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LM Shelter
LM Shelter - LM Shelter 160 pixels

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Other Designations: LM Shelter. Class: Manned. Type: Lunar Base. Nation: USA. Manufacturer: Grumman.

Essentially an Apollo LM lunar module with ascent stage engine and fuel tanks removed and replaced with consumables, scientific equipment for 14 days extended lunar exploration. Requiring two Saturn V launches, LM shelter would be landed on one launch, with manned Apollo CSM accompanying it conducting lunar orbit surveying operations only. A second Saturn V launch would deliver another CSM and LM Taxi combination to lunar orbit. The crew would take the LM taxi to the surface, landing near the shelter. Work was planned to begin in 1966, with 1-2 missions per year beginning in 1970 after accomplishment of the manned lunar landing goal. In the event, only the Lunar Rover vehicle, used in the later Apollo missions, ever saw actual use.

In order to house the astronauts during their 14-day stay a two-man STEP expandable shelter was an alternate to the LM Shelter. The STEP could be delivered by an LM descent stage together with a slightly higher discretionary payload than the LM shelter could carry. Either shelter would be delivered first by a logistics flight where the crew merely orbited in the CSM until the automated shelter-carrying LM had landed, and then returned to Earth, thus being able to use the Apollo CSM unchanged. The logistics flight was followed by the personnel transport. Because of the interval between first and second landing, the shelter-carrying LM had to be given a 90-day quiescent capability. The second flight would land the crew using the LM Taxi while the 30-day CSM waited in lunar orbit. After landing, the crew shut down the LM Taxi and activated the shelter system. Two weeks later, the LM Taxi was reactivated and the crew returned to the CSM and back to Earth.


LM ShelterLM Shelter

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By modifying the third stage of the Saturn V (S-IVB) for operation in lunar space, and by providing a 40-day quiescent capability for an unmanned CSM in lunar orbit, all three astronauts could be landed on the Moon for a 30-day stay time.
Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 2. Design Life: 14 days. Total Length: 6.4 m. Maximum Diameter: 4.3 m. Total Habitable Volume: 6.65 m3. Total Mass: 14,700 kg. Total Payload: 2,300 kg. Total Propellants: 8,000 kg. Primary Engine Thrust: 4,491 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Main Engine Isp: 311 sec. Total spacecraft delta v: 2,400 m/s. Electrical System: Fuel Cells.


Apollo LM Shelter Chronology


26 December 1963 Extension of Apollo systems to permit more extensive exploration of the lunar surface. Program: Apollo X. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.


Post-Apollo lunarPost-Apollo lunar - Comparison of American post-Apollo lunar spacecraft.

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MSFC Director Wernher von Braun described to Apollo Spacecraft Program Manager Joseph F. Shea a possible extension of Apollo systems to permit more extensive exploration of the lunar surface. Huntsville's concept, called the Integrated Lunar Exploration System, involved a dual Saturn V mission (with rendezvous in lunar orbit) to deliver an integrated lunar taxi/shelter spacecraft to the Moon's surface. Additional Details: Extension of Apollo systems to permit more extensive exploration of the lunar surface..
01 August 1965 Grumman final report on a study of LEM utilization for AES Earth-orbit missions. Program: Apollo X.

Grumman submitted to NASA its final report on a study of AES for Earth-orbit missions (conducted under the firm's contract for a LEM utilization study). The five-volume report comprised general engineering studies, mission and configuration descriptions for different groups of experiments (both NASA's and those for the Air Force's Manned Orbiting- Laboratory), and a cost and schedule analysis. Additional Details: Grumman final report on a study of LEM utilization for AES Earth-orbit missions..



Post-Apollo lunarPost-Apollo lunar - Comparison of American post-Apollo lunar spacecraft.

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11 July 1966 NASA leaders make several significant program decisions affecting AAP and post-Apollo development planning.

Meeting at Headquarters, Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller, and Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications Homer E. Newell made several significant program decisions affecting AAP and post-Apollo development planning in general: MSFC would be the lead Center for developing the ATM and would be responsible for all astronomy experiments. MSFC would be the lead Center for 'lunar engineering'-i.e., design and development of lunar exploration vehicles (including surface modules, supply trucks, and roving vehicles). MSC would have responsibility for Earth resources and lunar scientific experiments.



Lunar ExplorationLunar Exploration - Lunar Exploration Plans

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01 December 1966 John H. Disher released the report by a study group at Headquarters on various modified lunar modules suitable for a lunar exploration program as part of AAP. Program: Apollo X.

These modified craft took the form of a LM taxi, ferry and logistics craft, a LM shelter, and an 'augmented' LM. Disher authorized MSC to extend its engineering studies contract with Grumman to further define such modified LM configurations. He also asked MSFC to try to increase the Saturn V's translunar injection capability to 46 720 kg. These actions, he explained, afforded an opportunity to pursue any of several alternatives once future landing levels were known.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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