|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1993 - Quarter 3|
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Mir Expedition EO-14. Carried Vasili Tsibliyev, Alexander Serebrov, Jean-Pierre Haignere to Mir; returned Serebrov, Tsibliyev to Earth. Progress M-18 undocked from Mir's front port at around 17:25 GMT on July 3, and Soyuz TM-17 docked at the same port only 20 minutes later at 17:45 GMT. The EO-14 crew landed at 08:18 GMT on Jan 14 in the Soyuz TM-17 spaceship. The EO-14 expedition lasted 196 days 18hr 45 m, the 7th longest spaceflight. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 51 .
Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 278 .
Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule. Also photography of the earth's surface for the purpose of the natural resource mapping and area monitoring on behalf of various branches of the Russian economy and in the interests of international cooperation. Alternate name: Resurs-T. References: 1 , 2 , 6 .
Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also acted as communications platform; carried search and rescue package. INSAT-2B is a multi-purpose satellite, and it will provide the following services: Domestic long range communications, meteorological Earth observation and data collection service, Direct satellite TV broadcasting to community TV recievers in rural and re mote areas, Radio and TV programme distribution, satellite aided search and rescue services. Inclination will be reduced to 0.1 deg and maintained. Geostationary longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg E. Launch on Arianespace flight 58. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
This was the second flyby of an asteroid.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir at the Kvant rear port on 13 Aug 1993 00:00:06 GMT. Undocked on 13 Oct 1993 17:59:06 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Oct 1993 00:22:14 GMT. Total free-flight time 7.33 days. Total docked time 61.75 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
Communications was lost with the spacecraft on August 22, 1993 as it was preparing to go into orbit around Mars, and no significant scientific data was returned. Later investigation indicated this was due to a propulsion system explosion caused by propellants leaking past faulty valves.
Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 6 .
Obtaining meteorological data and information on the radiation status of geovicinal outer space. The satellite included the Temisat German small space facility, which was separated from Meteor-2 on the seventh transit of the flight. The Temisat facility w ill, in agreement the Kaiser-Threde Company (Munich), be registered by the Italian partner. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Telespazio Micro Satellite; demonstration of data relay system. Environmental measurements are acquired through ground sensors, collected, temporarily stored on the ground, and logged by an autonomous terminal until upload request is received from TEMISAT.Characteristics: (a) Mass 42 kg (b) Dimension 35 x 35 x 35 cm, (c) Electric power 62 W Max, (d) Attitude control : 2 magnetic coil, 1 Am**2, (e) On-board memories - 2 of 8.5 Mbytes each, (f) Lifetime 5 years. Drift of the ascending node of orbital plane: 0.8 deg/d westwards. Copassenger of METEOR 2 satellite. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
US Navy communications. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 278 .
Long duration film return military reconnaissance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft was deorbited. First launch that demonstrated doubled operational life. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 102 , 106 .
Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance. First night landing at KSC. Payloads: Advanced Communication Technology Sat-ellite (ACTS)/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer—Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) with Remote IMAX Camera System (RICS), Limited Duration Space Environ-ment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE) (Beam Configuration C), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG Block II), Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy-A (HRSGS-A), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equip-ment (RME-III), Air Force Maui Optical Site Cal-ibration Test (AMOS), IMAX In-Cabin Camera. Additional Details: STS-51. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Began installation of Rapana truss. References: 66 .
Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity. References: 66 .
EORSAT, first of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 215 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Ocean surveillance. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 69 .
Completed installation of Rapana truss. References: 66 .
Experimental Interferometric Microsatellite built by Interferometrics Inc, of Chantilly, Virginia. The satellite was also equipped with amateur radio equipment, constructed by AMRAD, a non-profit organization of radio amateurs, to conduct digital satellite communications experiments. The Amrad-Oscar-27 payload was an 'FM Repeater', consisting of a crystal controlled FM receiver operation at 145.850 MHz and a crystal controlled FM transmitter operating at approximately 436.795 MHz. Output power of the transmitter was normally 0.5 watts. Because of the satellite's limited power budget the amateur transmitter was on for only part of the daylight portion of each orbit. As of September 1998, the satellite passed its five year design goal. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Customer: SateLife. Store and forward communications satellite operating in the SatelLife 'HealthNet' LEO satellite communications network for remote regions. Still operational as of 2000.
Healthsat - II joined UoSAT-3/HealthSat-I as the second microsatellite in the HealthNet global communications system of SatelLife, a U.S. not-for-profit organisation. HealthNet, which was licensed in eighteen countries in Africa and Latin America, was providing desperately needed low cost 'last mile' communication links between medical institutions and health programmes in the developing world.
The HealthSat-II mission was completed, from concept to launch, within one year. SSTL were responsible for all the programmatic aspects of the mission including procuring the launch slot on the Ariane ASAP and arranging suitable insurance for the launch and early commissioning phase - all within a total contract price of £1M. Additional Details: Healthsat 2. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
KITSAT-OSCAR 25 was a South Korean experimental microsatellite based on the SSTL UoSAT bus built by the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). KO-25 was operated from The Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC) in South Korea. KO-25's mission was to take CCD pictures, process numerical information, measure radiation, and receive and forward messages. The Infrared Sensor Experiment (IREX) was designed to acquire I/V characteristics of IR sensors. A passive cooling structure was devised for this experiment. KO-25 was eventually operated purely as a packet store-and-forward satellite. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Portugal's first satellite achieved through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried store and forward, DSP communications, GPS and Earth observation payloads. Still operational in 2000. Additional Details: Posat 1. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Installed material samples and retrieved experiment packages. Documented external condition of Mir. References: 66 .
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