|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1990 - Quarter 1|
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NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was designed to provide long-term data on the space environment. LDEF was released from STS 41-C in April 1984 for a planned one year mission before retrieval by another Shuttle mission. Its planned retrieval was postponed by the loss of the Challenger in 1986. It was finally retrieved by STS-32 in January 1990 and returned to Earth. At the time of its retrieval LDEF was about one month away from re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. Many of the experiments were enhanced by the extended stay in space.
The Maui Optical Observatory atop Mount Haleakala established the first relay with Kihei, Hawaii.
British military communications; 6 deg E. Military communications. Expected life approx 7 years. Owner/operator: Ministry of Defence, Main Building, Whitehall, London SW1A 2HB. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Installed star tracker. References: 66 .
Deployed from STS 32 1/10/89; 177 deg W; leased to U.S. government. The Leasat series was developed as a commercial venture to provide dedicated communications services to the U. S. military. Additional Details: Leasat 5. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Manned five crew. Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Payloads: Deployment of Syncom IV-5, retrieval of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA)-3, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) III-2, Latitude/Longitude Locator (L3), American Flight Echocardiograph (AFE), Characterization of Neurospora Circadian Rhythms in Space (CNCR)-01, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)-4, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), IMAX, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (lOCM). Additional Details: STS-32. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Retrieved and installed material samples References: 66 .
University of Surrey experimental satellite. The first of Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd's modular microsatellites. Launched on the Ariane ASAP; carried an operational store and forward communications payload with extensive radiation monitoring experiments for SatelLife and Data Trax Inc (USA). Still operational in 2000. Owner/operator University of Surrey, Dept of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Technology demonstration mission carrying transponder, solar cell, CCD camera technology experiments. Customer: University of Surrey/European Space Agency. Launched alongside UoSAT-3, the microsatellite operated perfectly for 2 days before a failure occured in the downlink. Owner/operator University of Surrey, Dept of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH. Box shaped 350 x 350 x 650 mm. Four solar panels and 6 m gravity gradient boom. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
MUSES-A was renamed Hiten after launch. It developed of lunar swingby techniques for future missions and ejected a lunar orbiter. Launching organization ISAS. On 1990 Jan 25: Period 6.665 days, inclination 30.63 deg, 262.49 x 286182.72 km. On 1992 Feb 17: Period 4.53 days, inclination 38.90 deg, perilune 2289.67 km, apolune 49013.93 km. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Tested spacesuit. Examined exterior of Kvant 2. References: 66 .
Serebrov tested SPK manoeuvring unit. References: 66 .
Viktorenko tested SPK manoeuvring unit. References: 66 .
Boom, umbrella test. DEBUT 'Orizuru'. Experiment of extending and contracting boom; experiment of expanding and contracting aerodynamic brake. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 0133 UT. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Marine observation. Continuation of Earth observation functions of MOS-1; establishment of common technology necessary for Earth-observation satellites. Launching organization NASDA. Name MOS-1b 'Momo-1b'. Launch time 0133 UT. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
JAS-1b 'Fuji-2'. Continuation of amateurradio services of JAS-1; extension of amateur radio communications area; advancement of amateur radio technology. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 0133 UT. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-06. Docked with Mir. Transported to the Mir orbital station a crew comprising the cosmonauts A Y Solovyov and A N Balandin to conduct an extensive programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, experiments on biology and biotechnology and work on space materials science. Recovered August 9, 1990 07:35 GMT. Landed 70 km from Arkalyk at 50 deg 51'E 67 deg 17' N. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 51 .
Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment for SDIO. Research and exploration of the upper atmosphere and outer space. The McDonnell Douglas Corporation has provided the following information for its launch of the Losat spacecraft on 14 Feb 1990: LACE spacecraft (Losat-L), launch time 1615:00.626 GMT, ETR L aunch Complex 17. Programmed orbital parameters 95.6 min, apogee 551 km, inc. 43.1 deg. Evaluate laser beam distortion in space. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Relay Mirror Experiment; also known as Losat-R. RME validated stabilization, tracking, and pointing technologies for Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions through a credible demonstration of a space-based relay mirror system. The Wideband Angular Vibration Experiment (WAVE) measured low-level angular vibrations affecting performance of acquisition, tracking, and pointing systems. The experiment demonstrated that a laser beam can be accurately relayed from the earth to an orbiting satellite 450 kilometers away and then back to a 3-meter target on the ground. It achieved relay beam pointing accuracy which was 16 times better than the technical requirement. WAVE demonstrated the capability to discern platform disturbance amplitudes of a few nanoradians at discrete frequencies and is therefore a candidate to fulfill similar requirements for future ATP experiments. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Launched with BS-2X. Targeted for Geosynch orbit. References: 5 .
Civilian navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 14 of constellation. Maritime navigation. Signals at 150,00 MHz and 400.00 MHz. Carried COSPAR/SARSAT search and rescue package. Location of vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet; work within the international space search and rescue system for locating vessels and aircraft in distress (COSPAS-SARSAT). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Oceanographic remote sensing. Gathering of up-to-date oceanographic information and data on ice conditions in the interests of the Soviet economy and international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Landed at: Runway 23 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 368 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 494.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,407.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission - Record altitude (through 5/93). Additional Details: STS-36. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 3 Mar 1990 01:04:32 GMT. Undocked on 27 Apr 1990 20:24:43 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Apr 1990 00:52:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.26 days. Total docked time 55.81 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
It is commonly thought that he was killed by the Israelis, concerned not so much by the supergun work but rather dynamics research Bull was doing to improve Iraqi ballistic missiles. Three weeks later British Customs seized the final eight sections of the Babylon Gun.
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