|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1982 - Quarter 1|
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Bizan was the design iteration between the '49' and 'MAKS' concepts. Like the '49', it was air-launched from atop an An-124 transport. Unlike the '49', it was a single-stage-to-orbit tripropellant concept.
The objective of was an increase in payload of 90%. Total development cost 476 million 1986 ECU's.
The project was reasonably well advanced (engine detailed design and mockup) by the time the British government withdrew further funding in the mid-1980's. HOTOL would have taken off horizontally, transition to pure rocket propulsion at Mach 5.0 - Mach 6.0. and ascend to orbit. A moderate re-entry profile would decrease the thermal loading constraints. HOTOL would return via a glide landing, to a landing on gear on a conventional runway.
Drawings for the Mir space station are released during the course of 1982 and 1983 and construction of the spacecraft and its systems are begun.
Drawings were released in 1982-1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels (taken from Almaz), and the new Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Altair satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, and Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers.
Continued development problems with the booster rockets led to a management shake-up at Yuzhnoye in January 1982. By this time the project was several years behind schedule. The originally planned first flight in 1983 was obviously unattainable.
First test of the modified 3M bomber, converted to carry piggy-back Energia core stage components and Buran orbiters.
Development of the military nuclear powered communications satellite was approved by the Soviet VPK Military-Industrial Commission. The satellite would have used the 5 kW nuclear reactor originally planned for the Ekran satellite and used secure uninterceptable laser and radio inter-satellite and space-to-ground communications links. Did not reach flight status before the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Continued development problems with the Energia booster rockets led to a management shake-up at the Yuzhnoye design bureau.
Replaced Molniya 1-47. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites.
Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 278 .
Manned two crew. Payloads: Office of Space Science (OSS) experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Electro-phoresis Verification Test (EEVT), Plant Lignification Experiment. First and only landing by a shuttle at White Sands, New Mexico, after weather at Edwards did not permit landing there. Additional Details: STS-3. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 33 .
Replaced Molniya 3-15. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
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