|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1977 - Quarter 3|
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A Soyuz 25 mission to the Salyut 5 space station with the crew of Berzovoi and Lisun was to have followed Soyuz 24. However during the four months it took to prepare the Soyuz, Salyut 5 consumed higher than expected fuel in maintaining the station's orientation. As a result, the fuel reserves were 70 kg below those required for the planned 14 day mission and it was cancelled. References: 94 .
Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage, Discovery (OV-103) References: 15 .
A critical step in any Soviet project, this approved the design and paved the way for development to begin.
First test of TKS manned shuttle. Maneuvered extensively. TKS-VA capsule returned to earth August 16, 1977. Deorbited February 2, 1978.
214 km X 261 km orbit to 215 km X 279 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
207 km X 261 km orbit to 208 km X 264 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
208 km X 260 km orbit to 209 km X 267 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
192 km X 222 km orbit to 219 km X 232 km orbit. Delta V: 9 m/s
219 km X 232 km orbit to 303 km X 327 km orbit. Delta V: 51 m/s
303 km X 327 km orbit to 312 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
312 km X 319 km orbit to 314 km X 325 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
284 km X 294 km orbit to 290 km X 301 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s
288 km X 300 km orbit to 286 km X 305 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
285 km X 303 km orbit to 439 km X 447 km orbit. Delta V: 84 m/s
437 km X 448 km orbit to 335 km X 437 km orbit. Delta V: 31 m/s
335 km X 437 km orbit to 337 km X 438 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
337 km X 438 km orbit to 90 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 100 m/s
Total Delta V: 193/293 m/s
Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 , 439 .
Conduct 2-minute firing of SRB at Brigham City, Utah, Thiokol (2.4 million pounds of thrust) References: 15 .
Deliver forward payload bay doors, on dock, Palmdale (STA-099) References: 15 .
Deng Xiaoping, purged Chinese leader, restored to power as Gang of Four is expelled from Communist Party
Statsionar-2. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Third manned captive active flight. Enterprise (OV-101)/shuttle carrier aircraft, Edwards (59 minutes, 50 seconds) References: 15 .
Biological research. Scientists from the U.S.S.R., the U.S., Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic conducted experiments in physics and biology on the mission. The biosatellite was recovered at 51 deg 53 min N, 61 deg 30 min E, near Kustanay in Central Asia after remaining in orbit for 18.5 days. Additional Details: Cosmos 936. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 104 , 297 .
2 TKS-VA capsules atop Proton. These were the same capsules launched as Cosmos 881/882 on December 15, 1976. The plan was that both capsules would orbit and return, demonstrating the reusability of the TKS VA design. The launch escape system pulled the top capsule away from the exploding Proton rocket and it was successfully recovered. The lower capsule was lost with the booster. References: 5 , 67 , 274 , 439 .
High resolution photo reconnaissance mission. References: 42 .
Conduct first free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 21 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17 References: 15 .
Jupiter flyby 7/9/79, Saturn flyby 8/26/81, Uranus flyby 1/24/86, Neptune flyby 8/25/89. Solar system escape trajectory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Experimental commsat. SIRIO (Satellite Italiano Ricerca Industriale Orientata). Launch time 2350:00 GMT. Geographical longitude of geostationary orbit 15 deg W. SIRIO is a spin stabilized geostationary experimental communications satellite. Characteristics of satellite: Weight at launch 398 kg, in orbit 218 kg. Configuration - cylindrical, height 1.981m, diameter 1.433 m, nominal life two years. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Maximum Altitude - 500 km. References: 98 .
Planned mission to Salyut 6 that would make first docking with rear docking port and be the first crew to swap spacecraft and return in the spacecraft that ferried the Soyuz 25 crew. But Soyuz 25 failed to dock with Salyut 6. One result of the investigation of the failure of the mission was that all future crews would have to have at least one cosmonaut with previous space flight experience. Kolodin was replaced by Makarov, and Soyuz 26 as flown had quite a different profile. Kolodin never flew in space. References: 382 .
Budget overruns were apparent and NASA agreed to cancel further X-24C work. But given the stories of similar USAF test aircraft in the 1980's, perhaps the project merely went deep black.
Jupiter flyby 3/5/79, Saturn flyby 11/12/80. Solar system escape trajectory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance state acceptance test flight. Completely successful and led to acceptance of Yantar-2K into Red Army service in 1978. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 69 .
Deliver external tank MPTA-098 (Martin Marietta) to NSTL References: 15 .
Second free flight, ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 28 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 17 References: 15 .
Suborbital. References: 5 .
Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Nuclear-proliferation pact, curbing spread of nuclear weapons, signed by 15 countries, including U.S. and U.S.S.R.
Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Third free flight , ALT, tail cone on, Edwards (5 minutes, 34 seconds), Enterprise (OV-101), lake bed Runway 15 References: 15 .
Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.
Conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments; further testing of station design, on-board system and equipment. Soyuz 25 docking unsuccessful. EVA 20 Dec 1977 to examine forward docking port (no damage). EVA 29 July 1978 to retrieve externally mounted experiments (micrometeorites, biopolymers, radiation plates, materials tests). Soyuz 33 failure to dock due to propulsion failure April 1979. Soyuz 34 launched unmanned to provide replacement vehicle June 1979. EVA August 15 to dislodge 10 m diameter KRT-10 radio telescope from aft docking collar. Repair mission Soyuz T-3 December 1980 (temperature control hydraulics). Repair mission Soyuz T-4 March 1981 (stuck solar array). Salyut ejected a module on May 31 (perhaps retained Soyuz Orbital Module). Kosmos 1267 docks 19 June 1981. Commanded to reentry using Kosmos 1267 propulsion system over Pacific July 29 1982. Additional Details: Salyut 6. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Complete mate vertical stabilizer, Palmdale (STA-099) References: 15 .
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