|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1957 - Quarter 3|
|Previous Quarter||Next Quarter|
Aerobee upper air research rocket developed by the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins, and first fired on September 25, 1947, completed 165 successful firings to date. References: 17 .
A study was initiated by the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory on the use of solid-fuel upper stages to achieve a payload orbit with as simple a launch vehicle as possible. This was the beginning of the Scout test-vehicle concept. References: 483 .
These included development of a three stage version of R-7, development of satellite guidance and control systems of the precision required for photography from orbit, satellite control equipment, ELINT sensors, guidance systems, film cassette return systems, and tracking systems for recovery of the re-entry vehicle with the film cassette.
Navaho ramjet intercontinental missile program canceled by Air Force. References: 17 .
Launched at 0130 hours EST from AMR. The primary test objective was to test the accuracy of the guidance system. The flight was successful. Actual range was 130.125 nm; 0.15 nm over; and 285 meters left of the intended impact point. All missions were successfully accomplished. The missile followed the predicted trajectory very closely. Survey of the impact crater indicated a miss distance of 50 meters over and 284 meters to the left of the predicted impact point, giving a radial miss distance of 389.5 meters. Missed aimpoint by 289 m. References: 439 .
The supersonic intercontinental cruise missile was made obsolete by the Atlas ICBM. Already-built Navaho G-26 test missiles were flown to the end of 1958. At the time the program was cancelled full-range G-38 missiles were in fabrication with first flight test planned by the end of 1958. The engines, missile frame manufacturing techniques, inertial and stellar navigation equipment, and telemetry/guidance techniques developed for Navaho established the technical basis for all subsequent US rocket developments.
Launched at 2317 hours EST from AMR. The flight was successful. Actual range was 126.227 nm; 147 meters under; and 182 meters left of the intended impact point. The primary test objective was to flight test warhead and fuse functioning as a system. A survey of the warhead impact point: indicated a miss distance of 147 meters short, 182 meters to the left of the predicted impact point, or a radial miss distance of 234 meters. Missed aimpoint by 235 m. References: 439 .
Objective was limited to test of operation of first stage boosters. The AVD Engine Cutoff System activated on ignition due to destruction of an OT-155 propellant valve in one of the booster engines. The missile remained on the pad. The stage boosters were dismounted, checked, and reassembled.
A Jupiter-C (test vehicle in the Jupiter missile development program), with a scale-model nose cone, was fired 1,200 miles down the Atlantic Missile Range. The nose cone, an ablative type, reached a peak altitude of over 600 miles, and its recovery was one of the proving steps of the ablative reentry principle. The nose cone was displayed by President Eisenhower to a nation-wide television audience on November 7, 1957. References: 483 .
First Nose Cone Recovery. Army-JPL Jupiter-C fired a scale-model nose cone 1,200 miles down range from AMR with a summit altitude of 600 miles. Recovery the next day of aerodynamic nose cone using ablation, resolved reentry heating problem for Jupiter missile. Nose cone was shown to the Nation on TV by President Eisenhower on November 7.
Fired from AMR at 0159 hours EST, impacted at the predicted range. This success proved conclusively that the planned ablative-type heat protection for Jupiter warheads was satisfactory. The missile was a three-stage configuration--the first stage an elongated Redstone missile, the second and third stages 11 and 3 six-inch scaled Sergeant rockets, respectively. The one-third scale Jupiter nose cone was attached to the final stage with scheme for separation provided. The nose cone travelled to a 1,168 nm range, reached a velocity of 4,004 m/sec, and experienced a total heat input at stagnation point at 95% of that for the full scale nose cone at 1,500 nm. Naval units recovered the scaled nose cone according to plan. References: 439 .
In the summer of 1957 physicist Bob Brownlee attempted to 'contain' the blast effects of an atomic explosion from a device placed at the bottom of a 500 foot vertical shaft in the Nevada desert. A four-inch-thick steel plate weighing 'several hundred pounds' is placed over the hole (diameter not specified). This blew off as expected in the blast and was seen in films to depart the area at six times escape velocity . Brownlee never publicly challenged the Soviet's claim (to having launched the 1st Earth satellite. References: 92 .
Manhigh II reached a record altitude of 101,516 feet (30,950 m) with Major David Simons aboard on 19 and 20 August. Including the pilot and scientific equipment, the total weight of the Manhigh II gondola was 747 kg. At maximum altitude, the ballon expanded to a diameter of 60 m with a volume in excess of 85,000 cubic m.
Ministry of Armaments Decree 'On transfer of two R-12 missiles to China (on August 6)' was issued. References: 474 .
Soviet Union announces successful launch of a "super longdistance intercontinental multistage ballistic rocket ...a few days ago," according to Tass Soviet News Agency. References: 17 .
The fourth Jupiter was fired from AMR at 1602 hours EST over IRBM range and was the second successful flight of the series. The range error was 27.5 nm with a 36.5 nm lateral error. Range was predicted for 146 nm. LOX was cut off at 170 seconds. All flight missions were fulfilled satisfactorily. Separation occurred 5 seconds after burnout, as programmed, This was the first test of separation of body from thrust unit. References: 439 .
Objective was limited to test of operation of first stage boosters. After launch, there was a premature release of the jet vanes. The missile cleared the launch tower, then immediately arced over and crashed with a huge explosion within sight of the launch pad.
The 40th Field Artillery Missile Group, the first heavy missile group organized in the U.S. Army, was transferred from Fort Carson, Colorado, to Redstone Arsenal.
Launched at: 2141 hours EST from AMR. The flight was unsuccessful, The missile impacted 14 77 nm from the launch pad. Mechanical failure of the guidance tilt program caused the missile to assume a very steep trajectory which resulted La. a short range flight. Missed aimpoint by 111,000 m. References: 439 .
Solar spectrum research. Launched at 0704 local time. Reached 51.1 km.
Complete USAF Thor IRBM first successfully launched from Cape Canaveral. Dummy Warhead sent to 1800 km range.
Thirty-six Rockoons (balloon-launched rockets) were launched from Navy icebreaker, U.S.S. Glacier, in Atlantic, Pacific, and Antartic areas ranging from 75 N. to 72 S. latitude, as part of the U.S.-IGY scientific program headed by James A. Van Allen and Lawrence J. Cahill of the State University of Iowa (SUI). These were the first known upper atmosphere rocket soundings in the Antartctic area. References: 17 .
Scientists from 12 countries, including the United States and U.S.S.R., attended International Rocket and Satellite Conference held at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., under the sponsorship of CSAGI. References: 17 .
|Previous Quarter||Next Quarter|