BRIGADIER GENERAL CHARLES E. YEAGER
Retired Air Force Brigadier General Charles E. "Chuck" Yeager gained fame as the first man to fly faster than the speed of sound. This historic flight in the Bell X-1 aircraft took place Oct. 14,1947, at Muroc Dry Air Field (now Edwards Air Force Base), Calif.
General Yeager was born Feb. 13, 1923, in Myra, W.V. He attended the Citizens Military Training Camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind., in 1939 and 1940, and on Sept. 12, 1941, enlisted as a private in the Army Air Corps. He was later accepted for pilot training under the flying sergeant program in July 1942, and received his pilot wings and appointment as a flight officer in March 1943 at Luke Field, Ariz.
After completing basic training at Ellington Field, Texas, he served for two months at Mather Field, Calif., and later at Moffet Field, Calif. On Dec. 7, 1941, the United States entered World War II and General Yeager was transferred to Victorville Air Base (now George Air Force Base), Calif., where he worked on AT-11 aircraft and received promotions to private first class and to corporal.
In July 1942, General Yeager was selected for pilot training and graduated March 10, 1943, from Luke Field, Phoenix, Ariz. He was promoted from corporal to flight officer.
General Yeager's first assignment was as a P-39 pilot with the 363d Fighter Squadron in Tonopah, Nev. As a member of the 363d he trained at various bases in the United States before going overseas to England in November 1943. While in England he flew P-51s in combat against the Germans, shooting down one ME-109 and an HE-111K before being shot down on his eighth combat mission over German-occupied France on March 5, 1944. He evaded capture when elements of the French Maquish helped him to reach the safety of the Spanish border.
Yeager remained in Spain until the summer of 1944 when he was released to the British at Gibraltar and returned to England.
He returned to his squadron and flew 56 more combat missions, shooting down 11 more German aircraft. Between July and October he was promoted from second lieutenant to captain.
Yeager returned to the United States in 1945 to attend the instructor pilot course and subsequently served as an instructor pilot at Perrin Field, Texas. In July 1945 he went to Wright Field, Ohio, and participated in various test projects including the P-80 "Shooting Star" and the P-84 Thunderjet." He also evaluated all of the German and Japanese fighter aircraft brought back to the United States after the war. This assignment led to his subsequent selection as pilot of the nation's first research rocket aircraft, the Bell X-1.
In January 1946 General Yeager attended the test Pilot School at Wright Field, Ohio, and in August 1947 was sent to Muroc Air Base, Calif., as the project officer on the Bell XS-1.
On Oct. 14, 1947, he flew the XS-1 past the sound barrier, becoming the world's first supersonic pilot. During the next two years, he flew the X-1 more than 40 times, exceeding 1,000 mph and 70,000 feet. He was the first American to make a ground takeoff in a rocket-powered aircraft. In December 1953 he flew the Bell X-1A 1,650 mph, becoming the first man to fly two and one-half times the speed of sound.
In 1952 General Yeager attended the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala., and two years later returned to Europe to serve as commander, 417th Fighter Squadron, Hahn Air Base, West Germany, and at Toul-Rosieres Air Base, France. During his tour in Europe, he took first-place honors in the 1956 Weapons Gunnery Meet.
In 1957 he returned to the United States and was assigned to the 413th Fighter Wing at George Air Force Base, Calif., and in 1958 became commander of the 1st Fighter Squadron, flying new F-100 "Super Sabres."
General Yeager graduated from the Air War College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala., in June 1961, and, in 1962, became commandant of the Aerospace Research Pilot School (now the USAF Test Pilot School), where all military astronauts were trained.
On Dec. 10, 1963, while testing an NF-104 rocket-augmented aerospace trainer, he narrowly escaped death when his aircraft went out of control at 108,700 feet (nearly 21 miles up) and crashed. He parachuted to safety at 8,500 feet after vainly battling to gain control of the powerless, rapidly falling craft. In this incident he became the first pilot to make an emergency ejection in the full pressure suit needed for high altitude flights.
In July 1966 he assumed command of the 405th Fighter Wing at Clark Air Base, Republic of the Philippines, and flew 127 missions in South Vietnam.
In February 1968 he assumed command of the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, N.C., and deployed with the wing to the Republic of Korea during the USS Pueblo crisis.
In July 1969 he became vice commander, 7th Air Force, at Ramstein Air Base, West Germany, and in August was promoted to brigadier general.
In 1971 he assumed duties as the United States defense representative to Pakistan.
In March 1973 General Yeager went to the Air Force Inspection and Safety Center, Norton Air Force Base, Calif., and became director in June 1973.
He retired from active duty in the U.S. Air Force on March 1, 1975.
His military decorations and awards include the Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star with one oak leaf cluster, Legion of Merit with one oak leaf cluster, Distinguished Flying Cross with two oak leaf clusters, Bronze Star Medal with "V" device, Purple Heart, Air Medal with 10 oak leaf clusters, the Air Force Commendation Medal, Distinguished Unit Citation Emblem with one oak leaf cluster and the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award.
His civilian awards include the MacKay Trophy, Federation Aeronautique International Gold Medal Award, the Collier Trophy and the Harmon Trophy. He was selected one of the Ten Outstanding Young Men by the Junior Chamber of Commerce in 1953, elected to the Aviation Hall of Fame in 1973, presented the Golden Plate Award by the American Academy of Achievement in 1974 and the Horatio Alger Award in 1986, awarded a peacetime Congressional Medal of Honor by the Congress of the United States (presented by President Gerald Ford in 1976), and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Ronald Reagan in May 1985.
General Yeager's professional military education includes Air Command and Staff College in 1952 and the Air War College in 1961. He was awarded honorary doctor of science degrees from West Virginia University in 1948, From Marshall University of Huntington, W.V., in 1969, from Salem College in 1974, and from the University of Charleston in 1983.
General Yeager has flown 201 types of military aircraft and has more than 14,000 flying hours, with more than 13,000 of these in fighter aircraft. He has most recently flown the SR-71, F-15, F-16, F-18 and the F-20 Tigershark.
He married the former Glennis Faye Dickhouse of Grass Valley, Calif. Mrs. Yeager passed away December 1990. He has two sons, Donald and Michael; and two daughters, Sharon and Susan.
General Yeager remains an active aviation enthusiast, acting as advisor for various films, programs and documentaries on aviation. He currency serves on the Boards of Directors of Louisiana Pacific Corp., the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. He was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to serve on the National Commission on Space and the commission to investigate the space shuttle Challenger accident in 1986. He is a consultant test pilot for the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base.
He has published two books entitled, "Yeager" and "Press On: Further Adventures in the Good Life."
Current as of March 1993
AF glide flight 1. Pilot familiarization.
AF glide flight 2.
AF glide flight 3.
AF powered flight 1. Mach 0.85.
AF flight 2. About mach 0.89. Telemeter failure required repeat of this flight.
AF flight 3.
AF flight 4. Mach 0.91. Stability and control investigation.
AF flight 5. Mach 0.92. Check of elevator and stabilizer effectiveness. Also buffet investigation.
NACA acceptance flight. Number 4 cylinder burned out.
AF flight 6. Check of elevator and stabilizer effectiveness. Also buffet investigation.
AF flight 7. Airspeed calibration flight. Plane attained mach 0.925.
AF flight 8. Stability and control investigation. Plane attained mach 0.997.
AF flight 10. Electric power failure. No rocket ignition.
AF flight 11. Telemetry failure.
AF flight 12. Telemetry failure.
AF flight 13.
AF flight 14.
AF flight 15.
AF flight 16. Mach 1.35 at 14823 m.
AF flight 17. Airspeed calibration. Mach 0.9.
AF flight 18. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.2.
AF flight 19. Pressure distribution survey. Mach 1.1.
AF flight 21. Attained mach 1.25 in dive.
AF flight 22. Attained mach 1.45 at 12239 m during dive. Fastest flight ever made in original XS-1 aircraft.
AF flight 23. Engine shutdown after launch. Propellants jettisoned, completed as glide flight.
AF flight 34. Buffet investigation, wing and tail loads. Mach 1.05.
AF flight 36. Handling qualities and wing and tail loads at mach 1.
AF flight 37. Handling qualities and wing and tail loads at mach 1.
AF flight 38. Wing and tail loads during supersonic flight at high altitudes. Mach 1.09.
AF flight 39. Rocket takeoff from the ground.
AF flight 46. Partial engine malfunction, faulty engine ignition plug.
AF flight 56. Lateral stability and control investigation.
AF flight 59. Last flight of XS-1 No. 1 rocket research airplane, for RKO motion picture "Test Pilot," which was turned over to the National Air Museum at the Smithsonian on August 28th.
NACA flight 42. Flight for RKO film Jet Pilot. Slight engine fire but no damage.
AF flight 1. Reached mach 1.15. Familiarization purposes.
AF flight 2. Mach 1.5.
AF flight 3. First high-mach flight attempt by X-1A. Mach 1.9 attained at 18300 m during slight climb.
AF flight 4. Plane attained mach 2.44, but met violent instability above mach 2.3. Tumbled 15250 m, wound up in subsonic inverted spin. Yeager recovered to upright spin, then normal flight at 7625 m.