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astronautix.com Lunex - Chapter 5

Lunex Launch Pad
Lunex Launch Pad - Lunex Launch Pad with BC-2720 vehicle in assembly. The Lunex upper stage package has been integrated with the 'B' stage and will be installed by crane on the C-2720 booster and core stage assembly already installed in the cliff-side pad.

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SECTION IX. PERSONNEL AND TRAINING

9.0 INTRODUCTION

This section of the Lunar Expedition Program Plan (Lunex) includes estimated personnel requirements to support the program and presents the training required to accomplish the end objective.

The personnel requirements were derived on the basis of the scope of the complete program and the personnel would be comprised of civilian and military personnel. .

The training program was prepared by the Air Training Command and based on the Lunar Expedition Program Plan.

9.1 PERSONNEL

The accomplishment of the Lunar Expedition Program will have a manpower impact on the Air Force that is quite different than previous programs. The number of personnel actually on the expedition will be relatively small compared to the number of personnel required to support the operation. The actual contractor "in-plant" personnel required to accomplish this program are not included in the following figures. However, a general estimate of the total contractors' effort, based on the average estimated annual expenditure for the complete Lunex program, would be the equivalent of one of our larger manufacturing companies with 60 to 70 thousand personnel. It should also be stated that this effort would undoubtedly be spread throughout the industry and not concentrated in one company and the previous statement is only for comparison.

The military and civilian personnel required to support the Lunex program is estimated as follows:

Space Personnel: 145

Ground Personnel: 3677

Total Direct Personnel (Space plus Ground): 3822

Overhead: 1287

Grand Total Personnel: 5109

9.2 TRAINING PROGRAM

The remaining portion of this section of the Lunar Expedition Program Plan (Lunex) presents the Training Program. It is based on the limited data and information available at the time of preparation. The knowledge gained from the state-of-the art development of this program will of necessity have to be applied directly to the training areas to insure "concurrency" of the programs training development. Further, the training knowledge and experience acquired from current research and development programs must be studied for application to this program.

The concepts and plane projected in this part of the PSPP will be subject to constant revision and/or updating. Use of various simulators and synthetic training devices must be a part of the training program. Identification of the required training equipment and real property facilities to house them must be accomplished early in the program development to insure training equipment and facilities being available to meet the training need dates.

The unique mission of the Lunex program requires a comprehensive and timely source of personnel equipment data (PED). This information is required for space crew end support positions required to operate and maintain the space vehicles and support equipment. Development of such data must be initiated as part of the design effort to reduce the time element for follow-on personnel sub-system requirements.

No effort is made in this section to specify requirements for the Space Launching System since they are delineated in the Space Launching System Package Program.

This section of the Proposed System Package Program was developed under the premise that Air Training Command would be assigned the individual aerospace crew and technical training responsibilities for this program. Therefore, ATC must develop their capability concurrent with hardware development through the engineering design phases to support the expedition.

9.3 PLANNING FACTORS AND GROUND RULES


Lunex Chart III-ALunex Chart III-A - Lunar Expedition Master Program Schedule

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a. Scope:

This section is conceptual in nature at this time and embodies the basis for the training to be accomplished in support of the Lunar Expedition Program. It includes guidance for individual, field unit, and crew training.

b. Definitions:

(1) Aerospace Crew Personnel:

Personnel performing crew duty in the Lunar Transport Vehicle.

(2) Cadre Personnel:

Those personnel necessary for logistic planning, AFR 80-14 Testing Programs, and ATC instruction and preparation of training materials. The requirements for participation in the testing programs will include test instruments for category testing in accordance with paragraph 5 a (1) and (2), AFR 80-14, and Job Training Standards for the Integrated Systems Testing Program in accordance with paragraph 8 g (3), AFR 80-14.

(3) Main Complement Personnel:

Personnel employed in the receipt, check-out, installation, repair, maintenance and operation of the system.

(4) Support Personnel:

Air Force Logistic Commend personnel required for support functions as well as other agencies' supervisors and planners

(5) Types of Training:

(a) Type I (Contract Special Training). Special training courses conducted by contractors at an ATC installation, contractor facility or any other designated site.

(b) Type II. (ATC Special Training) Special Training Courses conducted by ATC training centres' instructors at an ATC installation, contractor facility, or any other designated site.

(c) Type III. Career training/

(d) Type IV. Special training provided by ATC training detachment instructors at the site or the organisation requiring the training.

(6) Testing Programs:

(a) Component - the testing of the components of a sub-system, such as the guidance package, or ecological package.

(b) Sub-system - components assembled into a sub-system, such as the Re-Entry Vehicle Subsystem and tested as a unit.

(c) Integrated System - the Re-Entry Vehicle, Lunar Launching Stage and Lunar Landing Stage assembled together and tested as a whole system.


Lunex Chart I - ALunex Chart I - A - Lunar Expedition Program Milestone Schedule

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c. Assumptions.

(1) The man-rated Lunar Transport Vehicle will be available for use by the Lunar Expedition in 1968.

(2) ATC personnel will observe, participate and study the training programs developed for current research and development programs conducted under other government agencies and/or contractors.

(3) AFR 80-14 will be used as a guide for accomplishing the program testing.

(4) The terminology for normal levels of maintenance, i.e., organisational, field, depot, and shop, vehicle assembly and maintenance as specified in AFLC (AMC) letter MCM, dated 25 July 1960, subject: Standard Maintenance Terms and Maintenance Facility Nomenclature for Missile Weapon Systems will apply.

(5) The Air Force Maintenance policy of maximum maintenance at the lowest feasible level will prevail.

(6) Due to the time phasing of the subsystems, special consideration must be given to the training facilities requirements funding for the Re-Entry Vehicle technical training programs.

(7) Testing Dates:

(a) Start of Component Testing Dates are:

1. Re-Entry Vehicle - June 1963.

2. Lunar Launch Stage - February 1965.

3. Lunar Landing Stage - May 1965.

(b) Start of Subsystem Testing Dates are:

1. Re-Entry Vehicle - November 1964.

2. Lunar Launch Stage - May 1966.

3. Lunar Landing Stage - July 1966.

d. Peculiar Requirements and/or Limitations:

(1) The unique mission of this program makes it mandatory that the following actions be accomplished concurrent with the development of the hardware:

(a) The contractors will develop the Personnel Equipment Data information concurrent with the design of the hardware. This is information must be available to ATC personnel for early planning purposes.

(b) Type I training dates reflected in the time phasing chart will require the use of R&D and test equipment as training equipment.

(c) Production schedules for R&D and Expedition equipment will include the training equipment required to support Type II and Type III training. Allocation and delivery priorities will be in accordance with AFR 67-8.


Lunex Lunar LanderLunex Lunar Lander - Lunex Project Manned Spacecraft

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(2) An identification of personnel necessary to support this system has been made in order to assist in defining the training parameters. Changes to these estimates will he made as more conclusive information becomes available. See Charts IX A and B.

(3) Maximum Cross-Training will be provided as required to all personnel associated with this program.

(4) The requirement for follow-on training and the value of past experience is recognised and maximum retention of personnel is mandatory.

(5) New and peculiar training problems are envisioned for the technical personnel

(6) The training of the aerospace crew personnel will require the development of a program which is unique to the Air Force.

e. Qualitative and Quantitative Personnel Requirements Information

(1) A QQPRI prepared in accordance with Mil Spec 26239A will be required to develop the training courses, course material and substantiation for the Personnel Classification changes.

(2) ATC and other applicable commands will furnish personnel for the QQPRI integration team and provide technical guidance to the contractor during preparation.

9.4 TRAINING

a. Training Responsibilities and Concepts:

(1) Engineering Design Effort

(a) ATC will participate in the engineering design effort to insure that technical data is collated with the personnel sub-system for follow-on training program requirements.

(b) ATC will be responsible for training required in support, of the R&D effort under AFR 50-9.

(c) Selection of the initial aerospace crew personnel and ATC aerospace crew training instructors for the Lunar Transport Vehicle will commence 8 months prior to the start of Category I Testing.

(d) All Lunar Transport Vehicle crews and military space launching support personnel will be phased into special training (Type I), 6 months prior to Category I Testing.

(e) Environmental, space training for the selected crews and instructor personnel will start 9 months prior to the start of Category II testing and will be conducted by the Aerospace Medical Centre, Brooks AFB, Texas.


Lunex Lunar LanderLunex Lunar Lander - Two view drawing of Lunex Lunar Lander, showing center of gravity and coordinate system stations.

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(f) ATC Lunar Transport Vehicle crews will be phased out of training 30 days prior to the requirement for Type II or III aerospace crew training to provide follow-on training capability in this area.

(2) Flight Testing & Expedition Program:

(a) ATC will be responsible for all individual training, i.e., technical, aerospace crew, AGE and addition job tasks as required.

(b) All requirements for Type I Special Training, AFR 50-9, in support of this effort will be contracted for by ATC.

(c) ATC will maintain liaison with the contractor concerning engineering changes in the program during its development to keep trainee information in consonance with the program / sub-program configurations and other concepts having a direct implication to training.

(d) Flight Testing & Expedition Crew proficiency will be the responsibility of the Lunex Program Director unless ATC is requested to furnish this training.

9.5 TRAINING PERSONNEL

a. Field Training Detachment (FTD)

The number of personnel required to provide training for lunar vehicle personnel will be determined during the training programming conference. QQPRI, TPR's, Personal Plan, Operational Plan and Maintenance Plan will be available at this time.

b. Contractor Technical Service Personnel (AFR 66-18)

Contractor technical service personnel may be initially required to augment Field Training Detachment (FTD) personnel. CTSP requirements in support of this program will be phased out as blue suit capability is achieved.

c. Trained Personnel Requirements (TPR)

TPR will be developed by commands concerned upon approval of QQPRI, and will be tabulated as gross requirements by command, by AFSC, and by fiscal quarter. These requirements will be phased on anticipated need dates for personnel to be in place at the testing sites, launch sites, and maintenance areas, and will be furnished Hq ATC in sufficient time to allow proper planning for required training.


Figure 4-3Figure 4-3 - Inboard Profile of Lunex Spacecraft

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9.6 TRAINING EQUIPMENT PACKAGE

a. General:

Training equipment requirements will be developed to support:

(1) Check-out and ground maintenance to be performed by the direct support personnel for the Lunar Transport Vehicle.

(2) Flight test operations and maintenance to be performed by the responsible crews. In consideration of this, present and near future systems experience gained in the aerospace area will be applied to the Lunex program to assist in the identification of training equipment. The training for this program must be conducted in the most realistic environment practicable.

(3) Post mission maintenance and test equipment.

b. Equipment Selection:

Selection of training equipment will be based on the following general rules:

(1) Maximum utilisation will be made of training equipment programmed for other missile and space system training programs.

(2) During the initial phases, equipment programmed for test, development, and the expedition programs will be used to the maximum extent practicable when regular training periods can positively be scheduled in the use of that equipment' The lack of availability of such equipment will result in degradation of training.

(3) Equipment selection will be made in consideration of future and/or subsequent programs to provide maximum training capability in similar systems with minimum cost.

(4) Maximum use and development of training films, training graphics, and synthetic training aids and devices will be made to reduce requirements for critical operational items during the initial phases of the program.

(5) Training equipment will be identified in sufficient time to enable procurement and delivery in advance of equipment for use in the flight test and expedition program.

c. Planning Factors:

Planning factors for determination of Training Equipment Requirements:

(1) In view of the limited program information presently available, definitive planning factors upon which over equipment requirements may be based cannot be provided. However, for preliminary planning, the following factors may be applied to subsystems of the program to determine order of magnitude. Provided Control Centres used for other space vehicles will be applicable to the Lunar Transport Vehicle, Category I (Trainers), Category II (Parts / Components / End Items), and Category III (Training Aids / accessories) training equipment requirements as specified in USAF letter dated 30 January 1961, subject: Weapon System Training Equipment Support Policy will be as follows:


Figure 4-3Figure 4-3 - Overhead view of Lunex Spacecraft

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Major Vehicle Sections: Percent of Sub-System Cost Required for Training Items

(a) Re-entry Vehicle: 250%

(b) Lunar Launch Stage 150%

(c) Lunar Lending Stage: 100%

Cargo Package: 100%

(e) Aerospace Ground Equipment: 200%

(2) Training films and transparencies requirements will be developed as soon as possible.

(3) Spare parts support will be required for all Category I and II training equipment.

(4) A continuing requirement will exist for the modification of training equipment. These modifications should be provided by review and processing of training equipment change proposals concurrent with operational equipment charge proposals.

(5) Funding of P-400 money will be omitted in consonance with AFR 375-4, Para. 12.

9.7 FACILITIES

a. General:

The needs for training facilities should be established approximately three years prior to the dates at which Type II training equipment will be required. Facilities must incorporate sufficient flexibility to accommodate future updating of training equipment resulting from program configuration changes.

b. Aerospace Crew Training Facilities:

(1) Initial training for aerospace crew personnel will require the use of existing space training facilities. Joint Use Agreements between NASA and other USAF agencies and the Air Training Command will be required to insure maximum utilisation of these facilities. Aerospace Medical Centre's facilities (Brooks AFB, Texas) will be utilised to the fullest. Interservice agreements with the Navy for use of specific training device facilities should be considered for crew training.


Lunex BC-2720 LVLunex BC-2720 LV - Lunex BC-2720 launch vehicle installed on the pad.

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(2) The establishment of a centralised space training facility would have a direct bearing on the overall specific requirements for this type of training. The results of the System Study Directive (SSD) Nr 7990-17610, titled: "Centralised Space Training Facility," will have direct bearing on the posture of the training facilities of the future. For this reason, facilities requirements for follow-on training are not projected.

c. Other Training Facilities:

It is anticipated that Technical Training Centres now in existence can absorb the additional technical training load without increasing the facilities. However, modification of existing facilities to provide training laboratories with specialised power and environmental systems will be necessary. This requirement must be identified in sufficient time to permit facility programming through normal procurement cycles.

9.8 BUDGET AND FINANCE

a. Training Equipment Costs

Funding will be required for training equipment identified in Section 9.6, Training Equipment Package.

b. Training Facilities Costs

Funding and costs of training facilities will be determined once the decision is made whether to build a Centralised Space Training Facility or to continue with decentralised procedures. Funding can then be determined for the required facilities and modifications.

CHART IX-B

LUNEX/SPACE LAUNCHING SYSTEM

1. The estimates for the launch system are not included in view of the status of the Space Launching System (SLS) study. It can, however, be estimated that the launch complex personnel utilised in both the liquid/solid propellant type boosters will be integrated into a team for support of this system.

2. At such time as the S.L.S. is designated as the primary launch support system, a PSPP will be made for the launch vehicle and support AFSC's as a part of this program.

SECTION X. INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATES

10.0 INTRODUCTION


Lunex Figure 6-1Lunex Figure 6-1 - Lunex Program Office

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The purpose of this section of the program plan is to estimate the foreign threat in terms of technical capabilities and probable programs which may affect the establishment of a lunar expedition. The threat will be defined in terms of major performance capability and dates of operational availability.

10.1 Foreword

The following data was obtained from DCS/Intelligence, Hq ARDC, and published intelligence estimates.

10.2 PERFORMANCE CAPABILITY

The Soviets have flown geophysical and component equipment payloads on their vertical rockets for the development, modification, and acceptance testing of instrumentation for use on their satellite and lunar aircraft. They developed and used complex scientific instrumentation on Sputnik III, and stabilisation, orientation and control equipment on Lunik III and Sputnik IV. Presently, by using their vertical rockets, the Soviets are testing infrared equipment, in addition to collecting data on the background noise level of the earth's surface. It is believed that a development program exists which eventually could lead to detection and reconnaissance satellites. The development program which led to the photographic system used in Lunik III is expected to continue, with an eventual application in photographic reconnaissance and weather satellites.

The Soviet space launch capability is shown in the following table of Sputnik and Lunik booster thrust levels:

There is also evidence of a cluster of five 140,000 pound units. The Soviets are developing engines of 1 to 2 1/2 million pounds thrust. The estimated time for a booster to match this engine is as follows:

In general, it takes approximately half the time for development required in the US


Lunex Figure 8-1Lunex Figure 8-1 - Lunex USAF lunar lander launch complex. The B stage and Lunex manned glider or Cargo payloads would be integrated in the buildings, moved to the clif-side launch pads, and then stacked on the core and booster stages.

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The maximum Soviet orbit capability, with present ICBM boosters using five (140,000 pound thrust) engines and four (6,600 pound thrust) engines is 10,000 pounds in low altitude orbit. All Lunik and Sputnik vehicles utilised a third stage having 12,500 pound thrust engine burning for approximately 420 seconds.

By using higher energy chemical propellants in modified upper stages, the payload can be increased up to 15,000 or 20,000 pounds during 1961. However, approximately 50,000 pounds of payload may be attained by 1962 if ICBM launch vehicle thrust is increased.

In the 1965-1970 period, a new clustered chemical booster should allow the Soviets to place 50 to 100 tons in orbit in individual launches. This will permit landing a man on the moon.

10.3 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Very early the Soviets realised the propaganda value obtainable from space adventures and, accordingly, have striven continuously for "firsts". This has apparently influenced the detailed pattern for their space planning. Even though the Soviets have achieved "firsts" in:

1) Establishment of an artificial earth satellite

2) Rocketing past the moon and placing a vehicle into a solar orbit

3) Hard impact on the moon

4) Photographing the side of the moon not visible from the earth

5) Safely returning mammals and men from orbit

it seems obvious that the Soviet attempts to score "firsts" will continue.

Although large orbiting spacecraft appear to be the prime Soviet technical objective during the period of this estimate, it is believed they will continue to use and improve their current lunar probe capability since there are many "firsts" yet to be accomplished in the exploration of the moon. These include lunar satellites, lunar soft landings, lunar soft landings and return with actual samples of the lunar surface, and, finally, a tankette for a true lunar exploration.

It is expected that the Soviets will continue to launch unmanned lunar rocket probes for the purpose of reconnoitring the moon and near moon environment for the application of this knowledge to the development of manned lunar exploration systems.


Lunex Figure 8-2Lunex Figure 8-2 - Closeup of Lunex Launch Pad, showing BC-270 launch vehicle being stacked.

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Since soft landings are essential for obtaining data on the lunar surface, it is believed that the Soviets definitely will have to develop techniques for achieving lunar soft landings, especially soft landings and return to earth, to establish the procedures to be employed in accomplishing the main objective of establishing a manned lunar station. The first of these test vehicles could be very similar to their Arctic automatic weather stations that presently are jettisoned from aircraft. This vehicle would be able to record temperature, micrometeorite impact, various types of radiation, particle concentration, seismic disturbances, solid resistivity, and depth of probe penetration. As landing techniques are improved, larger payloads with increased instrumentation for terminal control and lunar restart and launch capabilities will undoubtedly be developed.

Circumlunar flights by manned space vehicles, and eventually lunar landings, will be required in order to know more precisely the environmental situation preliminary to the eventual establishment of a lunar base and the complete conquest of this body. This is considered to be a more distant objective of the Soviet program and its attainment will appear, if at all during this decade, toward the end of the period.

Although the landing of a "tankette" on the moon falls under the category of a soft landing, the size and weight of such a vehicle makes it a sufficiently worthy subject for special consideration. The Soviets have published extensively on such a vehicle, and Yu D. Khelbtsvlch, Chairman of the Science Technical Committee for Radio Remote Control of Cosmic Rockets, has published his preliminary design of a tankette laboratory for lunar exploration. Graduate students of Moscow High Technical School now are experimenting with models of a tankette in layers of powdered cement to simulate powdered soil conditions which might be expected on the moon.

Actual accomplishment of the project will have to await the availability and flight testing of the new booster with thrust in the millions of pounds category in the 1965 time period.

The Soviets do not differentiate between military and non-military space systems. They have talked of a peaceful intent of their space program but there are many pounds of payload in their satellites which cannot be accounted for on the basis of data given out. It should be presumed that this could be military payloads. With this in mind, it can be stated that during the early 1970's it is possible that space weapon systems will be developed as a supplement to earth-based delivery systems. It is also possible that military facilities may have been established on or in orbit around the moon. Atmospheric and climatic conditions will demand an air conditioned environment for moon-based delivery systems. For increased survival security and decreased requirements for "imported" construction material, it seems reasonable to assume that these would be constructed under rather than above the moon's surface.

Appendix #1 - Glossary

Cargo Package

Cargo Payload

Circumlunar

Circumlunar Propulsion stage

Delayed Procurement Concept

Hi-Speed Re-entry Test

Lunar Expedition Facility

Lunar Landing Stage

Lunar Landing Stage - Cargo

Lunar Launch Complex

Lunar Launching Stage

Lunar Team

Lunar Transport Vehicle

Lunex

Lunex Program Director

Lunex Re-entry Vehicle

Man-rated

Manned Lunar Payload

Responsive Production Concept

Space Launching System

STANDARD TERMINOLOGY

AGE

Abort System

PEP

QQPRI

RPIE

USAF Lunar Chart

PROGRAM TITLES

BOSS

SAINT


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Last update 12 March 2001.
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