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Nazism and the Holocaust

Collaboration


Killing of Jews in Kovno...



Local Ukrainians in Lvov...



A welcome to German troops...



A Nazi propoganda poster...



Estonian volunteers...



SS Commander-in-chief Heinrich Himmler...



Ukranian SS volunteers...



Anne Frank...


COLLABORATION IN THE DEPORTATION and killing of Jews takes place in most countries occupied by German forces or under control of their allies. Participation in the "Final Solution" by regimes or civil administrations is either motivated by ideological agreement with the racist policies of the Nazis, by political considerations or by material advantages.

There is also massive collaboration by individuals: About 125,000 men in Western Europe and 200,000 men in Eastern Europe volunteer to the Waffen-SS between 1941 and 1944. Many people in occupied countries lend their active cooperation or passive support. All forms of collaboration in the persecution of Jews have at least one factor in common: the deeply rooted anti-Jewish traditions in Christian Europe that make it possible to exclude members of this group from human solidarity.

In Western European countries, the civil services continue to function under German occupation. The local administration, the police forces and the railways render important assistance in the process of concentration and deportation, mostly in ignorance of the "Final Solution."

In Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium, members of Nazi parties play a major role in the "Aryanization" of Jewish property. The Vichy regime in unoccupied France introduces anti-Jewish policies on its own accord and later complies to a large degree with German demands for the persecution and deportation of Jews. The fascist regimes in Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Italy follow their own anti-Jewish policies. Under pressure from their powerful ally, they also cooperate in the "Final Solution."

In countries formerly occupied by the Soviet Union, German forces are initially welcomed as liberators by part of the population and the churches. In its turn, the German government encourages local participation in anti-Jewish operations. As a consequence, about 300,000 men in auxiliary forces, militias or in the SS from occupied Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ukraine participate directly in the mobile killing units and in the operation of the extermination camps.

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