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Nazism and the Holocaust

Western and Southern Europe and the Balkans


Elderly Jews in Frankfurt...



France: Stateless Jews...



A railway station in Amsterdam...



"Negozio Ariano"...



Memorial to the victims...



Jews marked with the Star...



Jewish victims of the pogrom...


IN THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES occupied in the spring of 1940, German policies toward the Jews are more cautious than those in Poland.

Half a million Jews in Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France are forced to register in the fall of 1940, after the racial definitions of the Nuremberg Laws have been introduced in the occupied territories. Jews are expelled from the civil service and stripped of their property. The process is similar to the one affecting German Jews between 1933 and 1939: the gradual separation and isolation from the general population; indoctrination of the non-Jewish population with anti-Semitic propaganda; concentration in cities, "ghettos" and transit camps; expulsions and deportations.

When the war spreads to the Balkans in 1941, Germany allies itself with the fascist regimes of Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia in persecuting the 1.6 million Jews of southern and southeastern Europe. As most of the territories occupied in Yugoslavia, Greece, southern Russia and the Ukraine are held by German allies, the fate of the Jews there comes to depend on the willingness of these regimes to carry out the killing program of the Nazis.

With the exception of Italy, the German and allied forces carry out a ruthless campaign of mass killings and deportations in the occupied territories themselves. In their own countries, the fascist governments are more protective of their own Jewish populations and resist German demands for deportations to death camps to varying degree. The situation changes only when German armies in 1343 and 1944 begin to occupy countries of former allies as well.

A Bulgarian deportation ship...



Jews moving...


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