A "Jewish Problem"

Life in the Pale of Settlement

Alexander II - A Brief Spring

Renewed Oppression - the "May Laws"

The "Protocols of the Elders of Zion"

The Pogroms of 1903-1906

A Government Blood Libel: The Beilis Affair

Political Activity and Emigration


A water carrier. Most cities in the Pale of Settlement had no other form of water distribution than by water carrier. According to the 1898 census there were still 5,378 water carriers in the Pale.
See Life in the Pale of Settlement

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