Emancipation, cont.

Five generations of
the Kalischer family...

Characters from the
anti-Jewish play...

Dalles and his Family"...

Jews take advantage of the new freedoms and move into new professions, attend general schools and universities. But achieving social equality and acceptance is much more difficult. When Jews begin to emerge from their separate existence and their traditional occupations, many non-Jews are frightened and suspicious. Economic interests also play a role, and in some areas Jewish attempts to enter new economic activities are strongly resisted.

New barriers against Jews are thrown up by nationalism. As people begin to define themselves by a shared cultural background, language and common "blood," even Jews who have become both Christian and fully assimilated are now considered "alien." The age-old stigma of hatred based on religious differences is revived by Nationalism - the basis of modern anti-Semitism.

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