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Jewish partisans who had escaped from the Vilna ghetto taking part in the liberation of the Vilna district in July 1944. In early 1942, a "United Partisan Organization" (FPO) was founded in the ghetto. It smuggled arms and committed acts of sabotage. For fear of reprisals, the Nazi-appointed Jewish leadership opposed armed action inside the ghetto. After a confrontation with the SS in July 1943, the partisans began to evacuate to the forests to save the population from reprisals. The ghetto was "liquidated" a few months later.