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Title page of Te'udah be-yisra'el, by Isaac Bar Levinson, a founder of the Russian Haskalah. In this book, published in Vilna in 1828, he formulated a secular educational and productivization program for the Jews.

In 1836, Nicholas I ordered the closure of all Hebrew printing presses except the one in Kiev and in Vilna where two censors had to examine all printed books.