The pogroms in Russia in 1881 and the failure of countries in Eastern Europe to emancipate the Jewish population provided the impetus for Zionism to develop into a political movement. The influential pamphlet "Autoemancipation!" written by the Odessa doctor Leon Pinsker in 1882 called for the Jews to take emancipation into their own hands.
"Autoemancipation!" An Appeal to his Co-Religionists by a Russian Jew; Berlin