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Five generations of the Kalischer family, portrayed in 1889. After the Chmielnicki massacres in 1648, the family first moved to western Poland, then to Germany. In the 18th century, the family produced a number of well-known rabbis and Talmud scholars. In the 19th century, family members became lawyers, physicians, bankers, actors and writers - professions then accessible to Jews for the first time. Only one member, a composer, converted to Christianity in the mid-19th century.