A Hasid and his wife in typical dress of the 18th century. Hassidism, a religious movement that combines joyful religiosity with mystic and messianic ideas, originates in the areas of Poland most ravaged by the Chmielnicki massacres and the persecution of the 18th century. Israel Ben Eliezer, a charismatic rabbi, visited the Jewish communities as a miracle-worker (ba'al shem tov), gave advice and guidance and collected disciples around him (Hasidim). After his death in 1760, his followers spread his teaching all over Eastern Europe. At the center of the movement are the "courts" of the Hasidic "rebbes," rabbinical dynasties that trace their origins to the founder. Today, important groups are centered around the Rebbe of Lubavich (the Habad movement), the Rebbe of Satmar (both since the 1940s in New York), the Rebbe of Bratslav and the Rebbe of Gur (both in Jerusalem).