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Bogdan Chmielnicki, leader of the Cossack uprising against Polish rule in the Ukraine in 1648. Chmielnicki also attempted to rid the Ukraine of all Jews who were identified with Polish rule. In the course of the revolt, 300 Jewish communities were destroyed and tens of thousands killed.
The massacres, considered the first modern pogrom, left Polish Jews dazed for generations and contributed greatly to the enthusiastic welcome given to the false Messiah twenty years later. Ukrainian nationalists consider Chmielnicki a national hero.

Statue of Bogdan Chmielnicki, Kiev, Ukraine.