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The Jewish philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) is the most famous case of a Jew being banned for life from the Jewish community. Spinoza, whose father escaped from Portugal, questioned the authorship of the Five Books of Moses and the story of Genesis. A Rabbinical court in his native city of Amsterdam banned him in 1656 for his "evil opinions" from "the Nation of Israel." All members of the community were forbidden to maintain contact with him.

Holland, 17th century