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A pupil being taught the principles of Judaism. The study of religious texts was considered one of the highest duties. Except for periods of extreme poverty, all children were taught to read and write. The pupil's book shows a quotation attributed to Hillel, a rabbi of the 1st century. A heathen demands to be taught the whole Torah while standing on one leg. Hillel is supposed to have answered: "Whatever is hateful to you, do not do to others. This is the whole Torah. The rest is commentary."

A page from the Pentateuch (the Five Books of Moses); Coburg, Germany, 14th century