Spanish cantor A cantor reading from the Passover story in a Spanish synagogue. Jewish communities in Spain and Portugal blossomed under the Muslim Caliphs and the Christian kings, and Jews played an important role in the administration and in sciences. In the 14th century attitudes of the authorities toward Jews began to change. Jews were forced to live in special quarters locked at night and during Christian holidays. In 1492, all Jews were forced to either convert to Christianity or to leave the country. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula migrated to Muslim North Africa, to Turkey, Western Europe and, in the 16th and 17th centuries, as far as Mexico and North America.

Full-page miniature from Haggadah, Spain 14th century.