The first director of institute was academician Nicolay D. Ierusalimsky and afterwards for more than 20 years the Institute was headed by academician Georgy K.Skryabin. Since 1988 the Institute has been headed by Prof, D Sc. (biology) Alexander M. Boronin.
At present, the Institute's staff comprises 760 employees.
The Institute includes 3 Research Departments which, in turn, incorporate 4 laboratories. These include the Pilot Plant, the Non-standard Microbial Cultivation Unit, 14 independent laboratories, the Patent Department, the Department of International Scientific and Technological Cooperation, the Computer Center and the Editorial and Publishing Group.