PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Brown hair; gray eyes; 6 feet; 152 pounds.
EDUCATION: Graduated from high school in 1975; in 1981, received mechanicalengineering degree from the Leningrad Mechanical Institute, now called St.Petersburg Technical University.
MARITAL STATUS: Married to Elena Terekhina of Samara, Russia. Her parents, Faina and Yuri, reside there.
CHILDREN: Olga, February 20, 1990
RECREATIONAL INTERESTS: He enjoys swimming, skiing, bicycle riding, aerobatic flying, and amateur radio operations, particularly from space.
SPECIAL HONORS: As a member of the Russian and Soviet national aerobatic flying teams, he was Champion of Moscow in 1983, and Champion of the Soviet Union in1986. For his space flight experience, he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin, the French title of L'Officier de la L'egion d'Honneur, and the new title of Hero of Russia.
EXPERIENCE: After graduation in 1981, he joined NPO Energia, the Russian industrial organization responsible for manned space flight activities. He tested space flight equipment, developed space operations methods, and participated in ground control operations. When the Salyut 7 space station failed in 1985, he worked on the rescue mission team, developing procedures for docking with the uncontrolled station and repairing the station's on-board system. Krikalev was selected as a cosmonaut in 1985, completed his basic training in1986, and, for a time, was assigned to the Buran Shuttle program. In early 1988, he began training for his first long-duration flight aboard the MIR space station. This training included preparations for at least six EVA's (spacewalks), installation of a new module, the first test of the new Manned Maneuvering MMU), and the second joint Soviet-French science mission. Soyuz TM-7 was launched on November 26, 1988, with Krikalev as flight engineer, Commander Alexander Volkov, and French Astronaut Jean-Loup Chretien. The previous crew (Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov, and Valeri Polyakov) remained on MIR for another twenty-five days, marking the longest period a six-person crew had been in orbit. After the previous crew returned to Earth, Krikalev,Polyakov, and Volkov continued to conduct experiments aboard the MIR station. Because arrival of the next crew had been delayed, they prepared the MIR for a period of unmanned operations before returning to Earth on April 27, 1989.
In April 1990, Krikalev began preparing for his second flight as a member of the backup crew for the eighth long-duration MIR mission, which also included 5 EVA's and a week of Soviet-Japanese operations. In December 1990, Krikalev began training for the ninth MIR mission which included training for 10 EVA's. Soyuz TM-12 launched on May 19, 1991, with Krikalev as flight engineer, Commander Anatoly Artsebarsky, and British astronaut Helen Sharman. Sharman returned to Earth with the previous crew after one week, while Krikalev and Artsebarsky remained on MIR. During the summer, they conducted six EVA's to perform a variety of experiments and some station maintenance tasks.
In July 1991, Krikalev agreed to stay on MIR as flight engineer for the next crew, scheduled to arrive in October because the next two planned flights had been reduced to one. The engineer slot on the October 2, 1991, Soyuz-13 flight was filled by Toctar Aubakirov, an astronaut from the Soviet republic of Kazakhstan, who had not been trained for a long-duration mission. Both he and Franz Viehbok, the first Austrian astronaut, returned with Artsebarsky on October 10, 1991. Commander Alexander Volkov remained on board with Krikalev. After the crew replacement in October, Volkov and Krikalev continued MIR experiment operations and conducted another EVA before returning to Earth onMarch 25, 1992. With the completion of his second mission, Krikalev has logged more than 1 yearand 3 months in space, and has conducted seven EVA's.
CURRENT ASSIGNMENT: In October 1992, NASA announced that an experienced cosmonaut would fly aboard a future Space Shuttle mission. Krikalev was one of two candidates named by the Russian Space Agency for mission specialist training with the crew of STS-60. In April 1993 Krikalev was assigned as prime mission specialist. Scheduled for launch in November 1993, STS-60 mission objectives include microgravity experiments to be conducted in Spacehab-2, as well as the Wake Shield Facility which i s a joint project between NASA and the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center of the University of Houston. The Wake Shield will test the creation of an ultra-high vacuum in which to produce extremely pure semiconductor thin film crystals. Additionally, joint U.S./Russian sponsored science activities will be included in the mission. STS-60 will be the first joint U.S./Russian human space flight since the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in 1975, and the first to involve Russian and American space travelers on the same crew.