Post-Soviet Study Resources on the Internet (v1.0)

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     O    Post-Soviet Study Resources on the Internet (v1.0)  O
     O    ==================================================  O
     O    Compiled, edited and with commentary by Ian Kallen  O 
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                    TABLE OF CONTENTS
                    =================
INTRODUCTION                                      1.0
CONTEMPORARY NEWS AND DISCUSSION SOURCES          2.0
     INTERNET CONFERENCES: USENET                 2.1
     MAILING LISTS                                2.2
     LISTS RUN FROM LISTSERVERS & LISTPROCESSORS  2.3
     OTHER MAILING LISTS                          2.4
     INTERNET RELAY CHAT (IRC)                    2.5
     IRC SERVERS                                  2.6
     IRC CHANNELS                                 2.7
ARCHIVE, BIBLIOGRAPHY AND DATABASE SEARCHES       3.0
     LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SOVIET ARCHIVES          3.1
     AMERICAN UNIVERSITY-
          CENTER FOR SLAVIC AND RELATED STUDIES   3.2
     ANONYMOUS FTP                                3.3
     FTP SITES                                    3.4
     TELNET                                       3.5
     TELNET SITES                                 3.6
     GOPHER                                       3.7
     SOME SELECTED GOPHER DESTINATIONS            3.8
     WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)                         3.9
     WWW PUBLIC CLIENTS                           3.10
ADJUNCT SYSTEMS                                   4.0
     RELCOM                                       4.1
     SOVSET                                       4.2
     PEACENET AND GLASNET                         4.3
     IGC CONFERENCES                              4.4
     CONCISE                                      4.5
     SOVAM TELEPORT                               4.6
MANAGING WHAT YOU GET                             5.0
PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES                           6.0
CONCLUSION                                        7.0
DISCLAIMER                                        7.1
THE AUTHOR / EDITOR                               7.2
SOURCES                                           7.3
ADDITIONAL SOURCES/SUGGESTED READING              7.4

GLASNET RUBLE PRICE LIST                     Appendix A
MODEM SET UPS IN US & xUSSR                  Appendix B
LONG DISTANCE EURASIAN GLASNET ACCESS        Appendix C
COMMERCIAL CONTACT SERVICES                  Appendix D
IREX REPORT                                  Appendix E
MAINSTREAM COMMERCIAL NETWORKS               Appendix F
INTRODUCTION                                      1.0
============

     The mass media buzz about concerning the emergence of an 
"information superhighway" seems to have a narrow, myopic focus 
on the commercial potentials of this technological feat.  However
nice it may be to call up movies on demand and play interactive 
video games against virtual opponents, these abilities are a 
frivolous distraction of serious resources.  The power of this
network lies in the potential to breakdown the barrier of
publication production that separates interested readers from
authors.  Not to suggest that people will stop buying books or
other media, but people will know which publications they want to
buy for contemporary purposes and access archived publications
for historic purposes.  If the internet represents the primordial
beginning of this superhighway, then a case study consisting of a
search for bodies of information concerning specific topics may 
be of interst.  This paper is a summary of the internet sources I
have uncovered in my search for alternatives to the mainstream 
media sources concerning Eastern Europe (EE) and the Former 
Soviet Union (FSU).  I have divided my findings into two 
catagories: contemporary news and discussion sources and archived
documents, directories and bibliographies.  I have interspersed
my own observations and commentary as I deemed appropriate.  Just
as the internet as an amorphous and ever-changing body resources,
I imagine that the content of this paper will require constant
updating.  I have not the ability to verify the current status of
every resource. 
     To the best of my knowledge, as of March 1994, they are all 
presently in existance.
     The emphasis here is on the free resources open to the
internet public.  There may be more resources available on the
mainstream commercial on-line services such as America OnLine,
CompuServe, and Prodigy as well as Sovam Teleport, FidoNet,
Dialog, Lexis/Nexis and Clarinet.  Since this is unfunded
research and this is a non-commercial product  (you can send me
money if you want to but I'm not selling this work; though I will
send you a Thank You card if you do make a cash contribution),
substantive discussion of these resources is not explored. 
Perhaps in the next edition...The fee services included are
PeaceNet/GlasNet and Sovset.  Also, see the appendices. 
     Included are lists, archives and conferences thought to
exist that concern political issues, security issues, economics,
human rights, linguistics, some global environmental issues, and
broad interest affairs in the region.  I have also included in
the appendices a broad report from IREX that covers sources of
general internet information, some technical background including
connectivity in the FSU (beware: some of that discussion may
repeat the material provided by GlasNet), the Relcom/Demos
systems, SUEARN, and the Sovam Teleport system.   Resources that
deal with religious topics have been included only for the
purpose of encouraging discussion of the interplay between
cosmological views and group identification.  I have'nt yet found
groups that deal with Islamic issues. However, as I become aware
of these resources, they will be included in subsequent editions. 
The religious interests deemed applicable include the widely
practiced religions of Europe; please don't berate me for
excluding zen-buddhist resources here.  If the feedback warrants,
i.e. the peoples of Central Asia, say, the Tadjiks, are unfairly
excluded because of this, I will attempt remediation. 
Specialized groups focusing on computing, chemical engineering,
et cetera as they pertain to the region are excluded for brevity.
     Consulting the bibliography and sources cited will point the
interested reader to other resources such as these that were
deemed by me to be too far out on the periphery of the topic.
     This compendium does NOT contain any information on how to
obtain access to Internet/Usenet/EARN/CREN/etc.. For questions of
such a general nature please check other sources available on the
network like , where you can find many Frequently 
Asked Questions (FAQ) Lists, or, for example, read some files 
available via anonymous ftp from  (18.72.1.58), 
stored in the directory /pub/usenet. 
_________________________________________________________________ 

CONTEMPORARY NEWS AND DISCUSSION SOURCES          2.0
========================================

Little can be said by the author about Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
as it is not run on any of the systems that the author works on. 
Other than "live discussion," contemporary sources and current 
events are accessible via two methods: conferences and mailing 
lists.  Conferences are ongoing delayed (not live interactive) 
dialogues that consists of a huge hierarchicly structured set of
files called Usenet.  Not all internet computers carry all Usenet
files and some "read" the updates more promptly and rapidly than
others.  To access these conferences, one must acquire
familiarity with a "news reading program."  The system I've used
at San Francisco State University's VAX1 has "rn" and "tin." 
There are other applications that run at different internet site
computers such as "nn" and "trn."  Discussion of how to use a
news reading program is outside the scope of this paper, however
there are a number of "internet guide books" on the book stands
these days. 
     I acquired whatever proficiency I have with those programs
by typing "man tin" and "man rn" at the system prompt.  By the
way, I find "tin" much more approachable than "rn."  LISTSERV
mailing lists usually have two e-mail addresses.  One is the
equivalent of a "magazine circulation department," those who are
only responsible for seeing that the reading material gets to the
subscribers.  The second is the list-owners' address.  This 
usually the "editor of the magazine" if it's a moderated list or
"editor of the letters page" if it's a discussion group type 
list.

INTERNET CONFERENCES:  USENET                     2.1

If you do not have Usenet access: Messages can also submitted to
the newsgroups by e-mail. You need to send it to the following 
address: 
            selected.group@cs.utexas.edu 
 
   soc.culture.austria 
   soc.culture.baltics 
   soc.culture.bosna-herzgvna 
   soc.culture.bulgaria 
   soc.culture.cis              
   soc.culture.croatia        
   soc.culture.czecho-slovak 
   soc.culture.esperanto 
   soc.culture.europe 
   soc.culture.german 
   soc.culture.jewish 
   soc.culture.magyar 
   soc.culture.misc 
   soc.culture.polish 
   soc.culture.romanian 
   soc.culture.soviet           
   soc.culture.ukrainian 
   soc.culture.yugoslavia 
   soc.couples.intercultural 
   soc.history 
   soc.politics.arms-d 
   soc.roots                     
   alt.current-events.bosnia 
   alt.current-events.russia 
   alt.music.world 
   alt.news.macedonia 
   alt.politics.europe.misc 
   alt.politics.ec 
   alt.peace-corps 
   alt.religion.all-worlds  
   alt.uu.lang.russian.misc 
   bit.listserv.catholic        --> CATHOLIC 
   bit.listserv.christia        --> CHRISTIAN 
   bit.listserv.cinema-l        --> CINEMA-L 
   bit.listserv.c18-l           --> C18-L 
   bit.listserv.earntech        --> EARNTECH 
   bit.listserv.euearn-l        --> EUEARN-L 
   bit.listserv.film-l          --> FILM-L 
   bit.listserv.folklore        --> FOLKLORE 
   bit.listserv.history         --> HISTORY 
   bit.listserv.mideur-l        --> MIDEUR-L 
   bit.listserv.sganet          --> SGANET 
   bit.listserv.slovak-l        --> SLOVAK-L 
   bit.listserv.su-earn         --> SUEARN-L 
   bit.listserv.tesl-l          --> TESL-L 
   bit.listserv.travel-l        --> TRAVEL-L 
   bit.listserv.xcult-l         --> XCULT-L 
   eunet.politics 
   misc.news.east_europe.rferl 
   nordunet.dcom.baltics 
   sci.environment 
   talk.environment 
   talk.politics.misc 
   talk.religion.christian 
   talk.religion.misc 
   talk.politics.soviet        
   talk.politics.cis 
   rec.aviation.military 
   rec.heraldry 
   k12.lang.russian 
   clari.news.europe 
   clari.news.gov.international 
   clari.news.hot.east_europe 
   clari.news.hot.ussr 
To get more info on clarinet send mail to . 

(Pasek)

MAILING LISTS                                     2.2

     Mailing lists are a way to receive regular dispatches in
your e-mail "in-box".  The disadvantage arises when one goes on
vacation and does'nt "check the mail" for a while; the mail can
accumulate into an enormous pile.  Apart from this problem, this
is a good system for listening in and putting in one's thoughts
on a topic.
     I have provided some detail on lists that I have experience
with.  To the best of my knowledge, these are all operating
lists.  However, evaluating them all would be a daunting task; a
task disallowed by time constraints.  User feedback, or reviews,
may be included in future editions.

LISTS RUN FROM LISTSERVERS & LISTPROCESSORS       2.3

     Listserver addresses from which the discussion lists are 
distributed, can be obtained substituting  by word 
, for example  runs from
. Some of the mailing lists are 
available in the form of Usenet news. The following list contains
only discussion lists open to the public. 
 
     Each discussion list run from a listserver has two e-mail  
addresses, each one for a different purpose. You send commands to
the ListServ address and messages to the group address. 
Whenever it was possible mail addresses were given for each 
ListServer in the Internet domain. If the user requires a
BitNet, CREN, EARN or other specific addressing format, ask your
system support personnel how to address mail items.  If there is
only another system's node given, it means I have'nt found the
internet "conversion."  However, there are gateways.  See Krol or
Hahn or, again, ask your friendly system support personnel. 
There are also some addresses given in brackets - these have 
quasi-Internet form and may work, although no guarantee here :-(

 
If your machine is capable of sending and receiving Internet
mail, then to subscribe, using mail send the following command to
listserv@node.domain.etc: 
    SUB List-L your_full_name 
where "your_full_name" is your REAL name, and NOT your network 
userID. For example: SUB List-L John Doe 
 
If you are connected to CREN/EARN/etc. _and_ capable of using 
interactive messages, you can use syntax: 
   TELL LISTSERV at HOST SUB List-L your_full_name 
or send mail to 
   LISTSERV AT HOST 
with the following command 
   SUB List-L your_full_name 
 
Other useful commands (although they may vary slightly on 
different machines - use HELP first to find out): 
   INDEX List-L         sends a list of the available 
                        archive files 
   INFO GENINTRO        retrieves "General Introduction Guide" 
   REVIEW List-L        returns the network address and the 
                        names of all subscribers (if public) 
   SET List-L NOMAIL    temporarily cuts off the mail delivery 
   SET List-L MAIL      reinstates mail delivery 
   SIGNOFF List-L       unsubscribes you from the list 
   LIST                 sends description of all lists 
 
LISTPROC is a new software, performing similar functions to the 
LISTSERV, but more sophisticated. 
 

     When you subscribe to a mailing list, you will get a
confirmation message and instructions on how to access archives
and indices, how to post messages, how to cancel your
subscription and other information.  Though most of the mailing
lists operate similarly, it may behoove the user to save all of
these initial messages just in case one were to later seek a back
issue or cancel the subscription. 

AATG 
   American Association of Teachers of German 
   aatg@indycms.iupui.edu 
 
ACDGIS-L 
   Geographical Information Systems & related technologies with 
   the focus on Central Europe 
   acdgis-l@vm.akh-wien.ac.at 


AFA-FIN@wsuvm1.csc.wsu.edu
     The Financial Economics Network is a recent development. 
     Divided into 40+/- channels, or sublists, that cover a wide
     range of topics in economics and finance.  Subscribe first
     to the "master list" and receive a directory of channels
     with instructions for subscribing to them.
     Wayne Marr, Clemson University, marrm@clemson.clemson.edu
     John Trimble, Washington State, trimble@vancouver.wsu.edu
     To Subscribe: Send a message "Sub AFA-FIN your name"
     without quotes,with your actual name, not e-mail address, to
     listserv@wsuvm1@csc.wsu.edu

AIBIBL 
   IBM's Academic Initiative "Library Systems" in Poland 
   aibibl@plearn.edu.pl 

AMCA-L 
   Alumni and friends of Croatian universities. 
   amca-l@vm1.mcgill.ca 

ARMS-L@buacca.bu.edu
     ARMS-L invites discussion of war, peace, arms races, and 
     arms control.  Not a very active list but may be a good 
     place to generate some lively discussion.
     To Subscribe:  Send a message "Sub Arms-l your name" 
     without quotes,with your actual name, not e-mail address, to
     listserv@buacca.bu.edu

AMNESTY 
   Amnesty International newsletter 
   AMNESTY@JHUVM.hcf.jhu.edu 

BALT-L@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu
     The Baltics List is concerned with current affairs in 
     Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.  The latter is not as well 
     covered but this is still an excellent source.  The Estonian
     Foreign Ministry frequently sends complete speeches as well
     as their press releases.  If you subscribe to Radio Free 
     Europe/Radio Liberty, you'll want to delete the "Baltics 
     Related Items Extracted from RFE/RL" because you will have 
     read them already.  Available also
     BALT-L at UKACRL 
     balt-l@ib.rl.ac.uk 
     To Subscribe:  Send a message "Subscribe Balt-L your name"
     without quotes,with your actual name, not e-mail address, to
     listserv@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu
 
BERWRO-L 
   Discussion of Berkeley/Wroclaw Activities 
   berwro-l@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu 
  
CAR-CS 
   Weekly newsletter "Carolina" - news from Czechoslovakia. 
   Czech version 
   car-cs@earn.cvut.cz 
 
CAR-ENG 
   Weekly newsletter "Carolina" - news from Czechoslovakia. 
   English version 
   car-eng@earn.cvut.cz 
 
CASID-L 
   Canadian Association for the Study of Intl. Development. 
   casid-l@vm1.mcgill.ca 
 
CATHOLIC 
   Discussion of the Catholic approach to Christianity.
   catholic@auvm.american.edu 
   Usenet: bit.listserv.catholic 

CENASIA@vm1.McGill.CA
   Discussion of former Soviet republics in Central Asia.
   cenasia@vm1.mcgill.ca 
 
CERRO-L@aearn.edvz.univie.ac.at
     The Central European Regional Research Organization's 
     emphasis is on economic issues pertaining to Eastern Europe.
     A good place to make enquiries for statistical sources and 
     economic data.  A joint initiative of University of 
     Economics and Business Administration in Vienna, Slovak 
     Academy of Sciences and University of North Carolina at 
     Chapel Hill.  Available also as
     cerro-l@helios.edvz.univie.ac.at 
     To Subscribe:  Send a message "Subscribe Cerro-L your name"
     without quotes,with your actual name, not e-mail address, to
     listserv@aearn.edvz.univie.ac.at
 
CESNET-L 
   Discussion on Czech Educational and Scientific Network 
   (CESNET) 
   cesnet-l@earn.cvut.cz 

CHOMOR-L 
   Polish humor list 
   chomor-l@archimedes.pol.lublin.pl 
 
CIBER-L 
   US Dept. of Education Center for International Business 
   Education (Univ. of Maryland) 
   ciber-l@umdd.umd.edu 
 
CIT$W 
   The Cracow Institute of Technology discussion forum. 
   cit$w@plearn.edu.pl 
 
CROMED-L 
   Covers current events in Croatia, particularly in medicine. 
   Also used as a tool to gather medical and humanitarian help. 
   cromed-l@aearn.edvz.uni-linz.ac.at 
 
CSISNEWS 
   Newsletter for members of Czechoslovak Society of Computer 
   Science 
   csisnews@earn.cvut.cz 
 
CSTEX 
   Discussions on Czech version of TeX; connected with CSTUG 
   cstex@vax.felk.cvut.cz 
 
CTU-NEWS 
   Newsletter of the Czech Technical University in Prague 
   ctu-news@earn.cvut.cz 

C18-L 
   Interdisciplinary discussion on XVIII-th century 
   c18-l@psuvm.psu.edu 
   Usenet: bit.listserv.c18-l 

DEVEL-L 
   Discussion forum on technology transfer in an international 
   development. Sponsored by Volunteers in Technical 
   Assistance (VITA). 
   devel-l@auvm.american.edu 

DISARM-D@uacsc2.albany.edu
   Disarmament discussion monthly digest processed through 
   DISARM-L; also features special contributions. 
   disarm-d@uacsc2.albany.edu 

DISARM-L@uacsc2.albany.edu
   Discussions and monthly digests on disarmament. 
   disarm-l@uacsc2.albany.edu 
 
DNN-L 
   DevelopNet news distribution (see DEVEL-L) 
   dnn-l@auvm.american.edu 
 
DONOSY-L 
   Daily news bulletin from Poland 
   (subscribe Donosy-L) 
   Editors: Donosy-Redakcja@fuw.edu.pl    
   listproc@fuw.edu.pl 

EARNEST 
   The EARN monthly newsletter 
   (earnest@frors12.bitnet) 
 
EARNTECH 
   Discussion of European Academic Research Network 
   (EARN) issues 
   earntech@bitnic.educom.edu 
  
EAWOP-L 
   The European Association of Work and Organization 
   eawop@hearn.nic.surfnet.nl 
 
EC 
   Discussions of the European Community. 
   ec@vm.cc.metu.edu.tr 
 
ECA-L 
   The European Center-Atlanta is an initative of the Institute 
   for EastWest Studies, non-profit organization  formed to 
   assist Eastern European and xSU nations in transition to 
   market economies 
   listserv@gsuvm1.gsu.edu 
 
ECONOMY 
   The economy and economic problems of Less Developed 
   Countries 
   (economy@tecmtyvm.bitnet) 
 
EEC-L 
   Discussion on the programs in Training and Technology 
   sponsored by European Community. 
   eec-l@auvm.american.edu 
 
E-EUROPE 
   The East European Business Network.
   Discussions on doing business in Eastern Europe and 
   transition of EE-countries to market economies. 
   e-europe@pucc.princeton.edu 
 
EGOPHER
   Discussion of gophers devoted to Economics.
   egopher@shsu.edu   
   LISTSERV@SHSU.edu 
 
EMHIST-L 
   Early modern history forum 
   (emhist-l@rutvm1.bitnet) 
 
EOCHR 
   Discussion of Eastern Orthodox Christian 
   eochr@qucdn.queensu.ca 
 
EUEARN-L 
   Forum on computers and communications in the same 
   geographical area as Mideur-L 
   euearn-l@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu 
   Usenet: bit.listserv.euearn-l 
 
EURO-LEX 
   All EUROpean Legal Information Exchange 
   EURO-LEX at DEARN 
   euro-lex@vm.gmd.de 

EUROPE-L@gsuvm1.gsu.edu
     Regents' Global Center European Council from
     Georgia State University - Atlanta
     To Subscribe:  Send a message "Subscribe Europe-L your name"
     without quotes,with your actual name, not e-mail address, to
     listserv@gsuvm1.gsu.edu

EXPAT-L 
   Discussion of immigration issues 
   expat-l@cis.vutbr.cz 
 
FICINO 
   Discussion on Renaissance and Reformation 
   ficino@vm.utcs.utoronto.edu 
 
FOLKLORE 
   Discussions of folklore 
   folklore@tamvm1.tamu.edu 
 
GAZETA-DIST 
   Review of daily news; distributed on Polish Fidonet 
   listproc@poniecki.berkeley.edu 
   gazeta-dist@poniecki.berkeley.edu 
 
GAZETKA 
   Polish news from Big Apple (New York, that is) 
   gazetka@ia.pw.edu.pl 
 
GEOGRAPH 
   Geography discussion list 
   GEOGRAPH@FINHUTC.hut.fi
 
GER-RUS 
   Germans from Russia discussion 
   ger-rus@vm1.nodak.edu 
 
GERLINGL 
   Older Germanic languages (to 1500) 
   gerlingl@vmd.cso.uiuc.edu 
 
GERMAN-L 
   German Teaching materials 
   german-l@vm.ucs.ualberta.ca
 
GOVDOC-L 
   All about the government documents 
   govdoc-l@vm.ucs.ualberta.ca 
   govdoc-l@psuvm.psu.edu 
 
GRMNHIST 
   German history forum 
   grmnhist@ibm.gwdg.de 
   grmnhist@vm.usc.edu 
 
GUST-L 
   Polish TeX users group discussion list 
   gust-l@vm.cc.torun.edu.pl 
 
GW 
   Supplement to "Gazeta Wyborcza" in Krakow 
   gw@uci.agh.edu.pl 
 
HABSBURG 
   Discussion of Austrian history since 1500. 
   habsburg@vm.cc.purdue.edu 
 
H-ETHNIC 
   Ethnic history discussion list 
   h-ethnic@uicvm.uic.edu 
 
H-JUDAIC 
   Jewish history discussion list 
   h-judaic@uicvm.uic.edu 
 
H-LAW 
   Legal and constitutional history list 
   h-law@uivcm.uic.edu 
 
H-NET 
   Discussion on HUNGARNET, Hungarian Academic & Research Ntwrk 
   h-net@huearn.sztaki.hu 
 
HBONE-L 
   Hungarian IP backbone 
   hbone-l@huearn.sztaki.hu 

HISTORY 
   Discussions about history as a science, computers and 
   historians; bringing history closer to other sciences. 
   history@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu 
   Usenet: bit.listserv.history 
 
HLIST 
   The Holocaust Information list is devoted to Holocaust 
   research, and to the refutation of those who deny the event. 
   hlist@oneb.almanac.bc.ca 
 
HOLOCAUS 
   Holocaust discussion list 
   holocaus@uicvm.uic.edu 
 
HOSPEX 
   Database for those interested in being a host to foreign 
   visitors or finding a host when they are traveling abroad. A 
   request for subscription will result in sending you the 
   host's form to be filled and resent to HOSPEX@PLEARN. Only 
   then you can subscribe and be given access to HOSPEX data. 
   hospex@plearn.edu.pl 
 
HOSPEX$P 
   Discussion and drafting of HOSPEX policies 
   hospex$p@plearn.edu.pl 
 
HOSPEX-L 
   Discussion forum on hospitality exchange related to HOSPEX 
   database 
   hospex-l@plearn.edu.pl 
 
HUNGARY 
   Discussion related to Hungary and Hungarian culture, history 
   (hungary@ucsbvm.bitnet)  
INA 
   Discussions of Czech privatization 
   ina@ant.fee.vutbr.cz 
 
INTDEV-L 
   International development and global education 
   INTDEV-L@URIACC.uri.edu
 
INT-LAW 
   Foreign and international law libraries discussions 
   int-law@vm1.spcs.umn.edu 
 
INTER-L 
   Association of International Educators list 
   inter-l@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu 
 
INTERCUL 
   Study of intercultural communication 
   intercul@vm.its.rpi.edu 
 
ISAFPAS 
   International Studies Association FPAS 
   isafpas@asuvm.inre.asu.edu 
 
IVRITEX 
   Hebrew TeX list 
   ivritex@taunivm.tau.ac.il 
 
JUDAICA 
   Judaic studies newsletter 
   judaica@taunivm.tau.ac.il 
 
LABOR
   Discussion of Labor Economics.
   labor@shsu.edu
   LISTSERV@SHSU.edu

LODZ$L 
   Discussion forum for the academic community in Lodz, Poland 
   LODZ$L at PLEARN 
   lodz$l@plearn.edu.pl 
 
LORE 
   Folklore discussion list 
   lore@vm1.nodak.edu 
 
MEDIEV-L 
   Discussion for scholars and students of the Middle Ages 
   (283 A.D. to 1500 A.D.) 
   mediev-l@ukanvm.cc.ukans.edu 

MENDELE 
   Discussion on Yiddish literature and language. 
   mendele@yalevm.ycc.yale.edu 
   mendele@yalevm.cis.yale.edu
 
MIDEUR-L@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu
     Discussion of Middle European history, culture, politics and
     current affairs; in the countries located anywhere between 
     the Adriatic and the Baltic Seas, and between the 
     German/Austrian borders and the xUSSR.  Available also 
     Usenet: bit.listserv.mideur-l
     To Subscribe:  Send a message "Subscribe Mideur-l your name"
     without quotes,with your actual name, not e-mail address, to
     listserv@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu
  
MODELUN 
   Model UN bulletin 
   modelun@indycms.iupui.edu 
 
MULTI-L 
   Language and education in multilingual setting 
   MULTI-L@vm.biu.ac.il
   multi-l@barilvm.biu.ac.il

NABOKV-L 
   Vladimir Nabokov forum 
   NABOKV-L at UCSBVM 
 
NASK 
   Discussion of NASK (Polish Academic and Scientific Networks) 
   NASK at PLEARN 
   nask@plearn.edu.pl 

NATODATA@cc1.kuleuven.ac.be
     The NATO organization publishes colloquium and conference 
     results and statistics, speeches by NATO member government 
     leaders and the NATO leadership, and press releases.
     To Subscribe:  Send a message "Subscribe NATODATA your name"
     without quotes,with your actual name, not e-mail address, to
     listserv@cc1.kuleuven.ac.be
 
NET 
   Forum for Internet beginners in Czech 
   net@vax.felk.cvut.cz 
 
NET-L 
   Forum for beginning Polish users of Internet and Bitnet 
   net-l@vm.cc.torun.edu.pl 
 
NEW-LIST 
   Announcements of the new mailing lists 
   new-list@vm1.nodak.edu 
 
NISS 
   Newsletter for Internationalizing Social Sciences 
   niss@plearn.edu.pl 
 
NORDBALT 
   Networking between Nordic and Baltic countries 
   nordbalt@searn.sunet.se 
 
ORTHODOX 
   Discussion of the Orthodox Christianity and its impact and 
   resurgence within Russian & her neighbors. 
   orthodox@arizvm1.ccit.arizona.edu 
 
PAS-L 
   Academic network in Prague
   pas-l@earn.cvut.cz 
 
PCORPS-L 
   International volunteers discussion 
   pcorps-l@cmuvm.csv.cmich.edu 
 
PER 
   Discussion forum for a project on ethnic relations at 
   the Warsaw University 
   per@plearn.edu.pl 
      PERBIB at PLEARN       Database PERBIB 
      perbib@plearn.edu.pl 
      PERDB at PLEARN        Database PERDB 
      perdb@plearn.edu.pl 
 
PLOTKI 
   General public gossip distribution list 
   plotki@ia.pw.edu.pl 
 
POLAND-L 
   Discussion forum on Polish culture and current events. 
   poland-l@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu 
 
POLARCH 
   Discussion of Polish archives located at    
    
   polarch@poniecki.berkeley.edu 
 
POLIP 
   Discussion about Internet at Warsaw University 
   polip@fuw.edu.pl 
 
PONIECKI-L 
   Poniecki Fonudation general interest broadcast list 
   listsproc@poniecki.berkeley.edu 
   poniecki-l@poniecki.berkeley.edu 

PRASOWKA-DIST 
   Weekly dispatch of articles from Polish press 
   listproc@poniecki.berkeley.edu 
   prasowka@poniecki.berkeley.edu 
 
PRYZMATL 
   News from Technical Univ. of Wroclaw 
   pryzmatl@plwrtu11.ci-pwr.wroc.edu.pl 
 
RELIGIA 
   Religious discussions list 
   religia@uci.agh.edu.pl 
 
RENAIS-L 
   Discussion by students and scholars of the history 
   of Renaissance 
   renais-l@ulkyvm.louisville.edu 
 
RFE/RL DAILY REPORT 
   Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty daily news report 
   rferl-l@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu 
   Usenet: misc.news.east_europe.rferl 
 
ROOTS-L 
   Genealogy discussion list; there is a family surnames 
   index available via listserver or anonymous ftp from 
   vm1.nodak.edu (134.129.111.1) 
   roots-l@vm1.nodak.edu 
   Usenet: soc.roots 
 
RUSAG-L 
   Russian agriculture 
   rusag-l@umdd.umd.edu 
 
RUSHIST@earn.cvut.cz
   Discussion fo Russian history from Ivan III (XV c.) to the 
   end of Romanov dynasty (1917).  Maybe also available 
   rushist@vm.usc.edu 
 
RUSSIAN 
   Discussion of Russian language and literature issues. 
   russian@asuvm.inre.asu.edu 
 
RUSTEX-L 
   Discussion of the Russian version of TeX, other Russian text 
   processing systems, thesauri, spell checkers, keyboards etc. 
   rustex-l@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu. 
 
SAMORZ-L 
   Discussion of student governments in Polish universities 
   samorz-l@vm.cc.torun.edu.pl 
 
SCOLT 
   Foreign language education 
   scolt@catfish.valdosta.peachnet.edu 

SEELANGS 
   Discussion on Slavic & E. European Languages & literatures 
   seelangs@cunyvm.cuny.edu  
 
SGANET 
   Student government global mail network. 
   sganet@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu 
   Usenet: bit.listserv.sganet 
 
SGANET-E 
   Student government European mail network 
   sganet-e@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu 
 
SIBERIA 
   DIscussion on Siberia 
   SIBERIA at JPNIMRTU 
 
SLOVAK-L 
   Discussion of Slovak culture, etc. 
   slovak-l@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu 
   Usenet: bit.listserv.slovak-l 
 
SOVHIST@earn.cvut.cz 
   Discussion fo the Soviet history from the February Revolution
   in 1917 to the fall of the Communist rule in 1991 
   sovhist@vm.usc.edu 
  
STUDENT 
   student@nov.iem.pw.edu.pl 
 
SUEARN-L 
   Connecting the USSR to Internet digest 
   suearn-l@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu 
   bit.listserv.su-earn 
 
TESL-L 
   Forum for teachers of English to speakers of other languages 
   tesl-l@cunyvm.cuny.edu 
   Usenet: bit.listserv.tesl-l 
   There are also discussion subgroups (available also from 
   LISTSERV at CUNYVM): 
      TESLCA-L   Computer assisted language learning 
      TESLEC-L   Penpals 
      TESLIC-L   Intercultural communication 
      TESLIE-L   Intensive English program 
      TESLIT-L   Adult education and literacy 
      TESLJB-L   Jobs and employment issues 
 
TEX 
   Polish TeXnical topics list 
   tex@ia.pw.edu.pl 
 
TEX-D-L 
   German TeX users communication list 
   tex-d-l@vm.gmd.de 
 
TEX-EURO 
   Distribution list for European TeX users 
   TEX-EURO@vm.urz.uni-heidelberg.de
  
TOLKIEN 
   Discussions of works by J.R.R. Tolkien in Czech and Slovak 
   tolkien@pub.vse.cz 

TRADE 
   Discussion of international trade issues.
   trade@csf.colorado.edu
   listserv@csf.colorado.edu. 

TRANSLAT 
   Theory and practice of translation 
   translat@wuvmd.wustl.edu 
 
TRANSY-L 
   Transylvania University alumni 
   transy-l@ukcc.uky.edu 

UJ-NET 
   Jagiellonian University Network 
   uj-net@if.uj.edu.pl 
 
UN 
   Discussion of United Nations  
   un@indycms.iupui.edu 
 
UNCJIN-L 
   United Justice criminal justice information network 
   uncjin-l@uacsc2.albany.edu 

URALDEV 
     Community and Rural Economic Development Interests
     uraldev@ksuvm.ksu.edu
     LISTSERV@KSUVM.KSU.EDU

 
VAL-L 
   Discussion on changes in the Communist countries, ranging 
   from Cuba and Vietnam to xUSSR 
   val-l@ucf1vm.cc.ucf.edu 
 
WMUN-L 
   World model United Nations 1993 
   wmun@@earn.cvut.cz 
 
WROCLAW 
   Not a true discussion group, distributes weekly newsletter 
   from Wroclaw called "Socjety Journal", in Polish 
   wroclaw@plearn.edu.pl 
 
WWII-L 
   World War II discussion forum. 
   wwii-l@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu 
 
XCULT-L 
   International intercultural newsletter created by students at
   Penn State University. 
   xcult-l@psuvm.psu.edu 
   Usenet: bit.listserv.xcult-l 
 
9NOV89-L 
   Discussion of the recent events in the former GDR. 
   9nov89-l@tubvm.cs.tu-berlin.de 
 
 
The list of mailing lists available on the Internet is available
by anonymous ftp from ftp.nisc.sri.com (192.33.33.22) in the file
/netinfo/interest-groups. 

The following lists, when last checked, have ceased to exist:

EC431-L@YALEVM.cis.yale.edu
TPS-L@indycms.iupui.edu
SCS-L@indycms.iupui.edu
RUSSIA@indycms.iupui.edu
UKRAINE@indycms.iupui.edu

See section 6.0, PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES.

(Pasek and personal findings)
 
OTHER MAILING LISTS                               2.4

The lists listed here are using other forms of distribution than 
the ListServ, and are usually run by some individuals to whom 
you should direct the inquiries about joining the list. 
  
AGORA 
   A forum for Hungarian speakers. Send inquires and 
   contributions to the address of the list-owner (start the 
   subject field with the word AGORA). 
   agora@world.std.com 
   To get help: in the subject field write only $SEGITS 
 
AUS-VIEWS 
   Subset of Cro-Views aimed at Australian Croatians 
   joe@mullara.met.unimelb.edu.au 
 
BALTIC OBSERVER 
   An English language newspaper from the Baltic States.
   Reported to arrive zipped and uuencoded.  One must join the
   files, as they arrive in pieces, under one filename, then the
   file must be unencoded with `uudecode ' on a Unix
   machine and then the resulting file must be decompressed! Yow!
   bo@lynx.riga.lv 
 
BOSNET 
   Moderated mailing list on news and discussions about Bosnia 
   and Herzegovina 
   zukicn@wl.aecl.ca (Nermin Zukic) 
   hozo@math.lsa.umich.edu (Hozo Iztok) 
 
CATHOLIC-ACTION 
   Discussion of the Catholic evangelism, church revitalization 
   and preservation of Catholic teachings. Moderated. 
   freeman@vpnet.chi.il.us (Richard Freeman) 
 
CATHOLIC DOCTRINE 
   Discussion of orthodox catholic doctrine under jurisdiction 
   of pope John Paul II. Archive server 
   catholic-request@sarto.gaithersburg.md.us 
 
COUNTEREV-L 
   Discussion on monarchies and restoration thereof 
   ae852@yfn.ysu.edu (Jovan Weismiller) 
 
CROATIAN-NEWS/HRVATSKI-VJESNIK 
   News from Croatia, Slovenia and other countries of xYU 
   English edition:  croatian-news-request@andrew.cmu.edu 
   Croatian edition: hrvatski-vjesnik-zamolbe@andrew.cmu.edu 
   To subscribe send a message containing your name, e-mail 
   address, state/country where your account is; also put 
   state/country info in the 'Subject:' line. 
 
CRO-NEWS/SCYU-DIGEST 
   Discussion of news from Croatia, Slovenia and other countries
   emerging from former Yugoslavia. Not moderated 
   cro-news-request@mph.sm.ucl.ac.uk (Nino Margetic) (?) 
 
CRO-VIEWS 
   Opinion service on Croatia nad other xYugoslavian republics. 
   joe@mullara.met.unimelb.edu.au (Joe Stojsic) 
 
CZECH THE NEWS 
   Newsletter of the Czech embassy 
   72360.544@compuserve.com 
 
DYRDYMALKI 
   Bi-Weekly digest derived from the Polish press 
   zbigniew@engin.umich.edu (Zbigniew J. Pasek) 
 
EESTI RINGVAADE 
   Biweekly review of Estonian news (in English) dispatched by 
   Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
   dmardist@vm1.vm.ee (David Mardiste) 
 
E-LIST 
   News and discussion on Estonia 
   vilo@cs.helsinki.fi (Jaak Vilo) 
 
EUROPEAN REVIEW 
   European football newsletter 
   s947607@umslvma.umsl.edu (Pavel Nikiforovitch) 
 
FOLK-DANCING 
   Discussion on folk dancing 
   tjw+@pitt.edu (Terry J. Wood) 
 
FREE UNIX FOR ROMANIA    
   hancu@crim.ca (Marius Hancu) 
 
FRIENDS OF BULGARIA 
   Monthly newsletter distributed by Open Society 
   OSOSO at BGCICT 
   (ososo@bgcict.bitnet) 
 
GLASINFO 
   Ad hoc electronic bulletin on Russia 
   bcaon@netcom.com (John Bacon) 
 
GNET 
   Archive/journal related to the effort of bringing the net 
   to the lesser-developed nations 
   gnet_request@dhvx20.csudh.edu 
 
GROCH Z KAPUSTA 
   Weekly news and commentaries on situation in Poland as seen 
   from Krakow, Poland 
   Bielewcz@uwpg02.uwinnipeg.ca (Mirek Bielewicz) 
 
HIX 
   There exists a mail server containing information about the 
   Hungarian electronic resources, i.e. discussion lists, 
   newsletters, etc. Information is in Hungarian. 
   Hollosi Information Exchange (HIX): 
      gtoth@phoenix.princeton.edu 
   In the subject field write only:    HIX 
   The text of the letter is:          HELP all 
 
HR-L 
   Human rights 
   hr-l@vms.cis.pitt.edu 
 
IB 
   Forum for people involved in the International Baccalaureate 
   Diploma Program 
   hreha@vax2.concordia.ca (Steve Hreha) 
 
INFO-RUSS 
   Informal communication in Russian-speaking (or having related
   interests) community. 
   info-russ@smarty.ece.jhu.edu (Aleksander Kaplan) 
 
INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND COMMERCE 
   Discussion of intl. trade, commerce, and the global economy 
   info-request@tradent.wimsey.bc.ca 
 
JABLKO-L 
   Discussion of Czech users of Macintosh computers 
   jablko-l-request@cuni.cz 
 
JEWISH 
   Discussion of Jewish topics, emphasizing the law 
   avi_feldblum@att.com (Avi Feldblum) 
 
JUGO 
   News and discussions about the current events in xYu 
   dimitrije@buenga.bu.edu (DImitrije Stamenovic) 
 
KUHARSKE BUKVE 
   Cooking recipes in Slovene, weekly, moderated digest. 
   kuharske-bukve@ijs.si 
   kuharske-bukve@uni-lj.si 
 
KUNDERA-LIST 
   Discussion of works by Milan Kundera 
   kundera-request@anat3d1.anatomy.upenn.edu 
 
LITURGY 
   Christian liturgy 
   liturgy@mailbase.ac.uk 
 
MAGYAR 
   List on pre-1600 Hungary and the history recreation 
   dl-server@bransle.ucs.mun.ca 
   (subscribe magyar first_name_last_name) 
 
MAILING-LISTS 
   Info on mailing lists from xYugoslavia 
   mailing-lists@krpan.arnes.si 
 
MAK-NEWS 
   Discussion group on Macedonia 
   mak-news@uts.edu.au 
 
MET 
   Magyar Elektronikusz Tozsde - info in Hungarian stock and 
   commodity exchange 
   h4458orc@ella.hu 
 
METLICE 
   Monthly magazine in Czech 
   metlice@mbox.fsv.cuni.cz 
 
MIGRA-LIST 
   Mailing list on international migration 
   MIGRA-LIST-REQUEST at UTAHCA 
   migra-list-request@cc.utah.edu 
   MOLIVA at UTAHCA (Maurizio Oliva) 
   moliva@cc.utah.edu 
 
MILITARY 
   Discussions of the military technology 
   military-request@att.att.com 
   military@att.att.com 
 
NOVICE-MZT 
   News of Ministry for Science and Technology of Republic of 
   Slovenia 
   novice-mzt@krpan.arnes.si 
   novice.mzt@uni-lj.si 
 
OGLASNA DESKA 
   Digest of postings from SLON (Yugoslavian DecNet). 
   In Slovene, Croatian and Serbian. 
   oglasna-deska@ijs.si 
   oglasna-deska@uni-lj.si 
 
PIGULKI 
   Digest on the network news from Poland, in English, irregular.
   ZIELINSK at NYUACF (Marek Zielinski) 
   zielinski@acfcluster.nyu.edu 
   davep@acsu.buffalo.edu (Dave Philips) 
 
PISMA BRALCEV 
   Daily digest on travel, books and other non-political issues.
   In Slovene. 
   pisma-bralcev@ijs.si 
   pisma-bralcev@uni-lj.si 
 
RENEWS 
   Monthly digest on networking and computing in Russia. 
   nev@renews.relcom.msk.su 
 
ROKPRESS 
   Moderated mailing lists on Slovenia 
   tkosir@acs.ucalgary.ca (Tomaz Kosir) 
 
ROMANIANS 
   Mailing list for discussion, news, and information in 
   Romanian language. 
   mihai@sep.stanford.edu (Alexander Mihai Popovici) 
 
RSTUDENT 
   Daily news and columns from the independent student radio 
   station "Radio Student" in Ljubljana. In Slovene. 
   tkosir@acs.ucalgary.ca (Tomaz Kosir) 
 
SCCRO-DIGEST 
   Mail distribution of soc.culture.croatia 
   cro-news-reqest@medphys.ucl.ac.uk 
 
SCYU-DIGEST 
   Digest of postings from  
   cro-news-request@mph.sm.ucl.ac.uk (N. Margetic) 
 
SLAVLIBS 
   slavlibs@library.berkeley.edu 
 
SII 
   News and discussion about the events in xYu involving Serbs 
   owner@moumee.calscatela.edu 
 
SOVAM 
   Sovam US newsfeed 
   usasupport@sovusa.com 
 
SOVOKINFORM 
   CIS news, events, general information; usually in 
   transliterated Russian 
   burkov@drfmc.ceng.cea.fr 
   To subscribe send messgae SUB SOVOKINFORM  
 
SOVSET 
   carat.arizona.edu 
 
SPOJRZENIA 
   A biweekly e-journal, devoted to Polish culture, history, 
   politics, etc. In Polish. 
   spojrz@k-vector.chem.washington.edu (Jerzy Krzystek) 
 
ST. PETERSBURG BUSINESS NEWS 
   Daily digest of business information extracted from Russian 
   newspapers, stock reports, etc. Both Russian and English 
   versions available. Commercial. 
   aag@cfea.ecc.spb.su (Elena Artemova) 
   arg@stu.spb.su (Vladimir S. Zaborovsky) 
 
SZEMLE 
   News digest about Hungary. To subscribe, send a message with 
   the Subject: KELL 
   ujsagker@vuhepx.phy.vanderbilt.edu 
 
THEATRE 
   General discussions of theatre 
   theatre-request@world.std.com (Elizabeth L. Newman) 
   Usenet: rec.arts.theatre 
 
TINLIB-L 
   Discussion of the TINLIB library system 
   tinlib-l-request@cuni.cz 
 
TRAVEL-ADVISORIES 
   USA Dept. of State travel advisories for countries around 
   the world 
   travel-advisories-request@stolaf.edu 
   To subscribe send message: SUB TRAVEL-ADVISORIES  
 
UKRAINIAN STUDIES NEWSLETTER 
   Newsletter of the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies 
   userciuk@mts.ucs.ualberta.ca 
 
ULTRIX 
   Discussions of Ultrix operating system in Czech 
   ultrix-request@cuni.cz 
 
URP PRESS 
   Press service of the Ukrainian Republican Party 
   gerelo@cam.org (Mykola Sereda) 
 
VIZANTIJA 
   News and discussions about events in xYu involving and  
   affecting Serbs; also public actions related to these events 
   dimitrije@buenga.bu.edu (Dimitrije Stamenovic) 
 
VREME 
   Newsletter published by the Vreme News Agency in Belgrade, 
   in English 
   dimitrije@buenga.bu.edu (Dimitrije Stamenovic) 
 
THE WINDSOR VITER 
   Newsletter of the Ukrainian Canadian Business and Professional

   Association of Windsor 
   hlynka@server.windsor.ca (Myron Hlynka) 
 
WORKERS WORLD 
   News dispatch with a marxist flavor 
   ww@blythe.org 
 
YIDDISH 
   Discussion of Yiddish language and culture; in English and 
   transliterated Yiddish 
   dave@lsuc.on.ca (Dave Sherman) 

(Pasek)

 
INTERNET RELAY CHAT (IRC)                         2.5

Live interactive discussions are conducted on this system. 
However, its use is prohibited on the system I'm on and I have'nt
the funds to pay for exploration of this on a commercial access
provider.  Reader feedback on the utility of IRC would be
appreciated.

IRC SERVERS                                       2.6
   galaxy.uci.agh.edu.pl 
   ktts.kharkov.ua 
   monolit.kiev.ua 
   uvt.tuzvo.sk 
   vulcan.mimuw.edu.pl 
 
IRC CHANNELS                                      2.7
   #Polska 
   #Krakow 
   #Warszawa 
   #Poland 
   #POLSEX 

(Pasek)  

ARCHIVE, BIBLIOGRAPHY AND DATABASE SEARCHES       3.0
=====================================================

One needs to be conversant with internet applications such as 
Gopher, Telnet and Anonymous FTP in order to access these types 
of data.  Though some introduction is included in the sections
bearing those titles, a detailed discussion of how to utilize
these programs is outside the scope of this paper.  However, they
are widely discussed in the current literature found on the
"internet" bookstore shelves.  If the feedback warrants it, I
shall update the sections of this paper to discuss use of these
applications in further detail.  Otherwise, best advice is to
check out the SOURCES section and the sources mentioned in the
IREX report, Appendix E.

Library of Congress Soviet Archives               3.1
     Telnet marvel.loc.gov    (login: gopher)
     FTP seq1.loc.gov
          /pub      soviet.archive

American University 
          CENTER FOR SLAVIC AND RELATED STUDIES   3.2
          The American University 
          3301 New Mexico Avenue 
          Suite 304-A 
          Washington D.C.  20016 
          (202) 362-6934 
Thanks to the efforts of office mates, "Demokratizatsiya," CSRS
is now in the process of cataloging "Foreign Affairs" journals
from 1989-1992, "Foreign Broadcast Information Daily Reports"
(FBIS) from 1984-1991, CIA Directorates, as well as "The
Economist," "Time," and "Fortune" magazines containing articles
relevant to Eastern Europe and the former USSR.  The CSRS
computer is hooked up to the AU mainframe for access to ALADIN
and CMS.  Call (202) 362-6934 for office hours for the week. 

THE SOVIET ARCHIVES 
  The willingness of the new Russian Archival 
Committee under Pikhoya to cooperate in preparing this exhibit 
with the Library of Congress dramatizes the break that a newly 
democratic Russia is attempting to make with the entire Soviet 
past.  They are helping to turn material long used for one-sided
political combat into material for shared historical 
investigation in the post-Cold War era. 
     This exhibit is also remarkable for what it contains:  the 
first significant number of documents ever shown anywhere from 
what may be the most important new source of primary materials
for understanding the history of the twentieth century.  These 
documents provide an unprecedented inside look at the workings of
one of the largest, most powerful and long-lived political
machines of the modern era.  As in any modern archive, there is
more bureaucratic verbiage and fewer instant revelations than one
might hope for.  But the documents that the Library of Congress
has here chosen from the 500 made available from the Russian
archives cover the entire range of Soviet history from the
October Revolution of 1917 to the failed coup of August 1991. 
They include material from archives that had been key working
files of the Communist rulers until August 1991:  the archives of
the Central Committee, the Presidential archive, and the KGB. 
     This exhibit illustrates both the domestic and the foreign 
policy of Soviet rule.  
     *The first section covers internal politics and aspects of
Soviet reality that were hidden or falsified in official
propaganda.  These include the unannounced decisions and votes of
the higher organs of the Communist Party, as well as the
repressive activities of the Soviet security organs and various
organs charged with controlling literary freedom and organized
religion.      
     *The second section, dedicated to Soviet-American relations,
shows how those relations were conducted between governments, 
between the publics of the two countries, and between the 
Communist parties of the USSR and the USA.  This section
documents cooperative as well as confrontational periods in that 
relationship. 
     The material in the exhibit offers only a small suggestion 
of what the vast archives of the paper-intensive Soviet era may 
eventually reveal.  The material suggests that totalitarian 
practices of terror and forced labor began earlier and more 
deliberately than have often been assumed.  The ruthlessness, 
originality, and complexity documented in these records suggests
bureaucratic dictatorship cut off from the people--and provides 
many hints of why Communist rule both lasted so long and fell 
apart so fast. 
     All Soviet documents available with Gopher may be retrieved
via FTP. 
     Also available online are 25 GIF images of the original 
documents that have been translated in the handbook.  Viewing 
these images will require appropriate hardware and viewing soft-
ware for your respective computer.  These documents are not 
currently available via Gopher.  If you wish to download them,
use your favorite FTP program to do so.  Remember that GIF files
must be transferred as binary files. 
     From Gopher menu "Other Gophers" "North America" "USA"
          "Washington D.C." "American University" 
     All files are FTPable from darwin.cc.nd.edu in 
          /pub/soviet.archive 
 
 

Anonymous FTP                                     3.3
     FTP (File Transfer Protocol) program allows a user to
transfer  files to and from a remote network site. "Anonymous
FTP" indicates that a user may log into the remote system as user
"anonymous" with an arbitrary password (as a courtesy use your 
e-mail address as a password).  
     FTP is the ability to move one file from a host computer to
the computer that provides one access to the Internet.
Furthermore,if one's local personal computer is on a computer
network with the computer that is providing access to the
Internet, one can transfer the file once more to the local
computer by means of FTP.  
     To transfer a file using FTP, one must know that address of
the computer where the file is stored and the name of the file. 
The file may be either a written text file or it might be a
binary file (if it is a text file, it is a written document, such
as an article, essay, directions to acquire more information,
etc.; if it is a binary file, it might be a spreadsheet, a
computer program, etc.;).  For example, if Steve Herro's
autobiography was a written file (herro.txt) stored on the St.
Norbert College academic mainframe computer (sncac.snc.edu),
stored in the public section of sncac.snc.edu, the directions to
acquire the text would be the following (once one has logged onto
the mainframe that has provided access to the Internet): 
 
1.   
2.  login with  and then  or 
3.   (literally, this means change to the public 
directory of the sncac.snc.edu computer) 
4.   
5.   
6.   
 
The user still has to move the file from the computer that has 
provided him or her access to the Internet to his or her own 
personal computer.  The procedures for this final transfer vary.

FTP SITES                                         3.4

AUSTRALIA 
   laserspark.anu.edu.au 
 
CANADA 
   ftp.cc.umanitoba.edu  /rec-travel  extensive collection of 
                         travelogues and other travel infos 
 
CROATIA 
   atlas.irb.hr 
   thphys.irb.hr 
   ftp.ifs.hr 
   cromath.math..hr 
   carnet.hr 
 
CZECH REPUBLIC 
   a1well.feld.cvut.cz (147.32.192.31) 
   adelard.dcs.muni.cz (147.251.48.1) 
   dec51.lf2.cuni.cz   (193.84.64.5) 
   decsys.vsb.cz       (158.196.1.10) 
   earn.cvut.cz        (147.32.1.3) 
   ftp.fee.vutbr.cz    (147.229.9.10) 
   ftp.muni.cz         (147.251.12.8) 
   ftp.vse.cz          (146.102.16.9) 
   ftp.vslib.cz        (147.230.16.1) 
   ftp.zcu.cz          (147.228.54.11) 
   novell.felk.cvut.cz (192.108.160.5) 
   rhino.cis.vutbr.cz  (147.229.3.10) 
   sipek.vscht.cz      (147.33.2.40) 
   vax.felk.cvut.cz    (192.108.160.2) 
   vcdec.cvut.cz       (147.32.1.21) 
 
EUROPE 
   ftp.wu-wien.ac.at () 
      /pub/cerro  Archive of CERRO-L 
   ftp.funet.fi (128.214.6.100) 
   nic.funet.fi 
      /pub/culture/russian  Extensive archive covering almost 
                            all aspects of Russian culture 
   rusinfo.rus.uni-stuttgart.de 
      /pub/soft/tex/fonts/ams  Cyrillic TeX fonts 
 
HUNGARY 
   ftp.elte.hu 
   ftp.sztaki.hu 
   inform.inf.bme.hu 
   novell.aszi.sztaki.hu 
 
POLAND 
   alfa.camk.edu.pl (148.81.25.1) 
      /pub/pigulki 
      /pub/GUST/MeX  Package for Polish TeX for DOS 
   cc.ncu.edu.pl 
   copernicus.astro.torun.edu.pl 
   frodo.nask.org.pl 
   ftp.cc.torun.edu.pl 
   ftp.fuw.edu.pl 
      /pub/Donosy  Donosy archive 
   ftp.ia.pw.edu.pl 
   ftp.mimuw.edu.pl (148.81.12.1) 
      /pub/hospex  files related to HOSPEX list 
      /pub/polTeX  Polish TeX files 
   galaxy.uci.edu.pl 
   jetta.if.uj.edu.pl 
   ldhpux.immt-pwr.wroc.edu.pl 
   merkury.atm.com.pl 
   sigma.im.uj.edu.pl 
   sirius.astrouw.edu.pl 
      /Acta Astronomica archive 
   titan.coi.pw.edu.pl 
   zfja-gate.fuw.edu.pl 
   zsku.p.lod.edu.pl 
 
SLOVAKIA 
   ccfly.tuke.sk 
   frdsa.utc.sk 
   ftp.eunet.sk (192.108.130.33) 
   nic.uakom.sk 
   savba.savba.sk 
   uvt.uniag.sk 
   uvt.utc.sk 
   zodiac.upjs.sk 
 
UKRAINE 
   monolit.kiev.ua 
 
USA 
   bric-a-brac.apple.com 
      /software/mac/sys.soft.intl/  Intl. versions of Mac system
   dhvx20.csudh.edu  GNET archive 
   ftp.cica.indiana.edu  Fonts 
   ftp.cs.umd.edu  /pub/cyrillic 
   ftp.hyperion.com  /pub/x-cyrillic.tar.Z 
   ftp.stolaf.edu (130.71.128.9) 
      /pub/travel-advisories/advisories 
      travel advisories issued by US State Dept. 
   ftp.uu.net  /uumap  UUCP maps 
   jam.cog.brown.edu (128.148.208.200) 
      /pub/ruscat  Cyrillic text viewer for vt220 
   kekule.osc.edu  /pub/russian  Cyrillic fonts 
   lynx.ps.uci.edu (128.200.29.14) 
      /pub/polish/polmac  Polish fonts for the Mac 
   mcsun.eu.net  Cyrillic fonts and keyboards 
   moose.cs.indiana.edu 
      /pub/phonedir  xUSSR Long Distance Phone Directory 
   moxie.oswego.edu (129.3.20.3) 
      /pub/COUP  docs on Soviet coup in August '91 
   msdos.archive.umich.edu (141.211.164.153) 
      /msdos/foreign_lang/russian 
      /msdos/dos_fonts/cyryllic 
      /mac/system.extensions/font 
      and lots of other goodies... 
   poniecki.berkeley.edu (128.32.162.54) 
      /pub/polish  archive for almost all Polish e-press 
   rtfm.mit.edu (18.72.1.58) 
      /pub/usenet-by-group/soc.culture... 
   seq1.loc.gov (140.147.3.12) 
      /pub/soviet.archive  Files at the Library of Congress 
   spider.math.ilstu.edu (138.87.132.21) 
      user: ftp    password: your.e-mail.address 
      pub/pl/kawaly  collection of Polish jokes (in Polish) 
   sunsite.unc.edu 
      /pub/academic/history  Soviet archives from Lib. of Congr.
                             and other history materials 
   wsmr-simtel20.army.mil (192.88.110.20) 
      /PD1/MSDOS.EDUCATION/RUSEN125.ZIP  Russian-English on-line
                                         dictionary 
   wiretap.spies.com
     /Gov
     constitutions of various nations, treaties, speeches,
     conferences; form colonial England to Maastrict - a plethora
     comments to archive@wiretap.spies.com

xUSSR 
     (comments on accessibility pulled up on WWW-truth TBD)
surplus.demos.su        192.91.186.130          not accessible 
moscvax.demos.su             ???                not accessible  
newcom.kiae.su          144.206.136.5           not accessible 
fagot.turbo.nsk.su      192.188.187.30 
ncc.free.msk.su         193.124.3.1             still accessible
ftp.pczz.msk.su         193.124.24.129          still accessible
rd.izhmark.udmurtia.su  193.124.1.130           not accessible 
hq.izhmark.udmurtia.su  193.124.1.131           not accessible 
info.elvis.msk.su       192.153.171.60          still accessible
   
ftp.kiae.su                  ???                not accessible
sovcom.kiae.su          144.206.136.1           not accessible 
   
   
 
(Pasek, Herro and personal findings)
 
TELNET                                            3.5
     Telnet is the name of the computer software that enables a
person to connect from one computer on the Internet to another 
computer's database on the Internet.  The database that the user
is interested in may be an index to journal articles, a library 
online catalog, etc.  Below are listed some telnet addresses for
computers that have helpful information to those in world trade.
     When using telnet, note that the user is connecting to a
larger computer by means of a personal computer.  If the user is
using an IBM compatible computer, the person should use VT100 
emulation.  (After connecting, the user is asked for the terminal
type or the emulation; if VT100 is given, press return; if it is
a choice, choose it; it the terminal type must be typed in, type
VT100.) 
     Also note that most telnet connections may be broken by
.  A system that a person has logged onto will usually give
the user the proper procedures for logging out, but if not,
 and at the telnet>, . 

(Herro)
 
TELNET SITES                                      3.6

ABSEES Online
     American Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies
(ABSEES) Online contains bibliographic citations for journal
articles, government and research reports, dissertations, books,
and chapters of books published in the United States and Canada. 
In excess of 10,000 entries are filed.
     telnet alexia.lis.uiuc.edu
     (login: absees, password: slavibib)
     comment to absees@uxl.cso.uiuc.edu
 
Economic working papers--telnet netec.mcc.ac.uk (login: netec,
password: netec)
     This computer houses an index to, and the full text of, many
academically oriented papers on economics.  To transfer the full
text of the papers, one must be adept at decompressing files. 
 
Economic BBS--telnet infopath.ucsd.edu (login: infopath) 
     This is the Gopher server for the University of California 
at San Diego (more about Gopher later!).  There is a reference 
section on the main menu that includes the CIA World Fact Book 
(which offers almanac type information on every country in the 
world), a geographic name server (which provides geographic 
information on localities in the United States), and the United 
States State Department Advisories (which offers travel 
information on foreign places to tourists and business people). 
     The Economic BBS is actually under the heading world. 
Select world, then select by subject area, then select economics,
then select economic bulletin board.  The bulletin board offers a
number of helpful databases, such as a directory of economists, 
economic data available in spreadsheet format, lists of 
government information sources, trade news, etc. 
 
Vienna Stock Exchange--telnet fiivs.01.tu-graz.ac.at (login:
BOERSE) 
     The user must read German to use this database.  The
database discloses stock rates for hundreds of Austrian stocks. 
 
CARL Uncover--telnet pac.carl.org 
     Uncover allows the user to search a database of over 14,000 
journals, from 1988 to the present.  The user may search the 
database by author of article, title of journal, or keyword from
title of article.  Furthermore, articles may be faxed to the user
from CARL after the citation has been discovered. 
 
Catalog of United States Government Publications--telnet 
starmaster.uhcc.hawaii.edu 
     This uses the same interface as CARL Uncover.  After
connecting to this database, you can search a catalog of
thousands of government documents by author, title, or keyword. 
 
Fedworld Gateway--telnet fedworld.doc.gov 
     Note that this address is often busy.  Try it during late
evening or early morning hours.  It is packed with federal
government information. 
 
Economic Bulletin Board--telnet ebb.stat-usa.gov (login: guest) 
     This service includes texts of speeches related to
economics, bulletins distributed by government offices related to
economics, trade promotion material, etc.  Note that much of the
information is only available to registered users. 
 
 EconData--Telnet info.umd.edu (login: gopher)
     Select "Education resources" and then select "Economic
data".  One may also use Gopher to same address for same
information. This database includes the National Income and
Product Accounts, balance of payments, flow of funds, CPI, PPI,
the Penn World Trade  Tables (permission needed), International
Financial Statistics (if your organization is a member of the
Inter- University Consortium for Political and Social Research), 
blue pages from the Survey of Current Business, and state 
and local data including employment, earnings, GSP and state 
personal income.  The data is in a computer file which must 
be decompressed. 
 
Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) 
     This project brings together 66 household surveys from 21 
countries into a common database to make studies of 
international economic comparisons easier. For instance, it 
includes Current Population Surveys from the U.S., French 
Surveys of Income, and a Hungarian Income Study. The 
average survey has approximately 9,000 households with more 
than 20,000 members. To maintain confidentiality and restrictions
on use, the data remains on the host computer in Luxembourg and 
researchers run jobs remotely on that system through electronic 
mail. Users must first register to use the database.  For 
information, contact the following: Tim Smeeding 
(smeeding@suvm.bitnet), Caroline de Tombeur 
(eplisjr@luxcep11.bitnet). 
 
Jewishnet/Hebrew University - Jerusalem
     telnet vms.huji.ac.il (login: jewishnet)

anezka.vc.cvut.cz (147.32.240.22) 
   Library of the CVUT 
   (Login: library) 
 
varda.ics.muni.cz (147.251.12.8) 
   Library of the Masaryk University 
   (LOgin: tinlib   password: anonym) 
 
echo.lu (158.64.1.36) 
   European Commision Host Organization - free databases 
 
info.rutgers.edu (128.6.26.25) 
   CIA World Factbook 
 
ktts.kharkov.ua 
monolit.kiev.ua 
 
olimp.irb.hr 
   Library of the Rudjer Boskovic Institute 
   (Login: ISIS) 
 
opac.nsb.hr 
   National and University Library (Croatia) 
   (Login: OPAC) 
 
ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu (129.237.1.30) 
   History databases (Login: history) 
   CIS info (Login: ex-ussr) 
 
tulibb.kkt.bme.hu (152.66.114.1) 
   Technical University of Budapest library catalog 
   (Login: aleph   at CCL> prompt type ?/eng for English version)

192.187.128.6 
   Bulgarian news (Login: vestnik) 
 
193.2.64.42 
   University of Ljubljana library catalog 
   (Login: INFO   select K to access catalogs) 

(Pasek, Herro and personal findings)
 
GOPHER                                            3.7

Gopher is a widely used internet utility that allows one to
search nested and linked menues for internet archives and, at
specific sites, full text documents.  I have found searching
Gopher to be akin to tackling a maze; lots of dead ends but very
satisfying successes.  "Gopherspace" is not a two dimensional
maze that one could map out on a single sheet of paper but more
closely resembles a multi-dimensional super-solid with
interconnected mazes.  The menu choices that end in "/" lead to
more menues, the "(?)" leads to a keyword search.  Some Gopher
keyword "search-paths" seem to only examine filenames whereas
others search indexed file sets for keyword matches.  When one
arrives at a "(?)" Gopher prompt, some groping will reveal which
type of search it conducts.  The numbered entry can select an
item or the cursor up and down keys. "u" moves up a menu to the
previous screen.  After viewing a end-product file, one is
presented with a choice to "s" save the file to your system file
area or have it mailed to your mailbox space.

SOME SELECTED GOPHER DESTINATIONS                 3.8

United Nations Gopher Server--gopher nywork1.undp.org 
     Contains United Nations press releases, directories,
resolutions, documents from the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development, etc. 
 
Wiretap--gopher wiretap.spies.com 
     This Gopher server contains the full text of the NAFTA
Agreement, Government Accounting Office Transition Reports, and
other government documents from the United States and around the
world. This server contains so much information that it is
advised that the user log on and browse it at his or her will. 
 
Library of Congress Gopher Server--gopher marvel.loc.gov 
     This Gopher server includes much helpful government
information. Follow these menus to find appropriate international
documents, Federal government information/state, local, foreign,
and international government/international government
information.  I recommend experimenting with this Gopher server
to see all kinds of information available. 
 
Radio Free Europe Daily Report--gopher gopher.lib.umich.edu 
     Select "News services", select "Radio free Europe daily
report". This is only available to non University of Michigan
users during nonpeak hours.  Try it late at night or on the
weekends for reports from radio free Europe. 
 
Area codes--Gopher gopher.uoregon.edu; login:  
     Select "Desktop Reference", select "Geographic and 
Travel Information", select "World Telephone Codes".  This 
database allows users to search for country and area codes in 
several ways. 

Economic Bulletin Board--gopher una.hh.lib.umich.edu and login 
.  Select "ebb" 
     The  U. of M. gopher downloads information from the 
Economic Bulletin Board, including Current Business Statistics, 
Economic Indicators, Employment Statistics, Industry Statistics,
Summaries of Current Economic Conditions, etc.  More
specifically, Durable Goods Shipments and Orders, Housing Starts,
Monthly Wholesale Sales, Business Cycle Indicators, Revised 
Composite Indexes and Indicators, and Summary Text Files for 
Economic Indicators.   The major file areas are arranged 
alphabetically by topic. 
  
Economic Development Information Network--gopher psuvm.psu.edu 
23.  On initial login, ignore the userid and password prompts. 
>From "command" , select edin from main menu. 
     Menu options include:  Pennsylvania State Data Center in
which you can find data for any state in several areas including 
Business, Capital Resources, Government, Income, Labor Force, 
etc.; Demographic and Economic Database Files which allows one to
select geographic preferences and then topic areas; Procurement 
Leads - in international trade and agriculture; and the Economic
Development Directory in which one can design search criteria to
select programs or agencies of use. 

Times around the World--gopher esusda.gov, choose Internet 
Services and Information, choose Local Times Around the World 
     This alphabetical listing by country gives the Current
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and the Universal Coordinated Time for
cities around the world.  Cities include Ann Arbor, MI; Oslo,
Norway; Zagreb, Croatia; Lancaster, UK; Bangkok, Thailand; etc. 

CERRO Gopher
     From the Gopher menu, make the following menu choices:
 "Other Gophers" - "Europe" - Austria" - 
 "University of Economics" - "Netzwerk Ressourcen..." - "CERRO: 
..." voila, there you are. 
     This is definitely the best way of getting to the
CERRO-archive.  Why? The Gopher-based Archive contains links to
material on other Gopher-servers that is not accessible through
FTP. 
     If you can't get into Gopher at MSU but can Telnet, you can 
telnet to "gopher.wu-wien.ac.at" and login as "gopher". This gets
you into the main Gopher-menu. Least attractive option: find an 
FTPMAIL-gateway and use FTP through e-mail. In this case you 
simply write the FTP-commands into an e-mail and send them to the
gateway. The program there does the FTPing for you and mails you
back the result. There is a file "index.txt" in the CERRO-archive
that shows the content. Get this one first and select the files 
you want to download. FTPMAIL is usually a pain. Just like the 
old days of computing when you turned in your pile of punch cards
and picked up the output on the next day just to find out that 
you have mistyped something. To get "index.txt" from the 
CERRO-archive you should send the following commands to FTPMAIL: 
     connect ftp.wu-wien.ac.at 
     cd /pub/cerro 
     get index.txt 
     quit 
There are CERRO archives maintained at Rice University, however 
their equivalency is yet to be determined.

gopher.worldbank.org

GOPHERS:  The big list... 
 
AUSTRIA 
   gopher.ai.univie.ac.at 
   gopher.kardio.akh-wien.ac.at 
 
AUSTRALIA 
   laserspark.anu.edu.au 
 
CROATIA 
   smile.srce.hr (root gopher of CARNet) 
   zagreb.mz.hr 
   maja.zems.etf.hr 
   gopher.ifs.hr 
 
CZECH REPUBLIC 
   csmat.karlin.mff.cuni.cz (193.84.58.222) 
   decsys.vsb.cz            (158.196.1.10) 
   gopher.cesnet.cz         (192.108.152.13)  Czech root gopher 
   gopher.cuni.cz           (192.108.152.13)  Charles University
   gopher.fee.vutbr.cz      (147.229.9.10) 
   gopher.feld.cvut.cz      (147.32.192.5) 
   gopher.fsv.cvut.cz       (147.32.129.4) 
   gopher.jcu.cz            (160.217.1.10) 
   gopher.ms.mff.cuni.cz    (193.84.56.1) 
   gopher.upol.cz           (158.194.7.2) 
   gopher.vscht.cz          (147.33.1.4) 
   gopher.vslib.cz          (147.230.16.1) 
   gopher.zcu.cz            (147.228.54.11) 
   pub.vse.cz               (146.102.16.9)  Prague U of Econ. 
   rhino.cis.vutbr.cz       (147.229.3.10) 
   vcdec.cvut.cz            (147.32.1.21) 
 
EUROPE 
   concise.funet.fi 
      CONCISE database accesible via gopher 
   gopher.who.ch 
      World Health Organization 
 
GERMANY 
   134.96.82.13                      U Saarbruecken 
      Archiv gegen Auslaender Innenfeindlichkeit 
   gopher.e-technik.tu-muenchen.de   TU Munich 
   gopher.inf.tu-dresden.de          TU Dresden 
   gopher.rrz.uni-koeln.de           U Koeln 
   gopher.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de        U Karlsruhe 
   gopher.tu-magdeburg.de            TU Magdeburg 
   gopher.uni-konstanz.de            U Konstanz 
   gopher.uni-passau.de              U Passau 
   gopher.uni-regensburg.de          U Regensburg 
   serversun.mdv.gwdg.de             U Goettingen 
 
HUNGARY 
   mars.sztaki.hu 
   bmeik.eik.bme.hu 
 
POLAND 
   galaxy.uci.agh.edu.pl 
   gopher.ae.poz.edu.pl 
   gopher.atr.byd.edu.pl 
   gopher.fuw.edu.pl 
   gopher.ia.pw.edu.pl 
   gopher.torun.edu.pl      (158.75.2.5) 
   gopher.umcs.lublin.pl 
   ldhpux.immt-pwr.wroc.edu.pl 
   mvax.ci-pwr.wroc.edu.pl 
   plearn.edu.pl 
   ruby.poz.edu.plucs 
   ucstoux1.cto.us.edu.pl   Silesian Univ. C.C. 
   vm.cc.torun.edu.pl 
   volt.iem.pw.edu.pl 
 
SLOVAKIA 
   ccsun.tuke.sk 
   decef.elf.stuba.sk 
   fpdas.utc.sk 
   frdsa.utc.sk 
   frdsa.utc.sk 
   kosice.upjs.sk 
   nic.uakom.sk 
   savba.savba.sk    Slovak Academy of Sciences 
   sk2eu.uniba.sk 
   sun.savba.sk 
   uvt.uniag.sk 
   vsld.tuzvo.sk 
 
UKRAINE 
   ktts.kharkov.ua 
 
USA 
   andrea.stanford.edu 
     /Egyeb Magyar Nyelvu Archivumok/Fekete Zoli (AGORA) 
   gopher.undp.org   United Nations Development Program 
   gopher.uwo.ca 
     world-factbook92 
   Louisiana Tech Gopher 
     /Electronic Media/ISSN Serials/Donosy 
   poniecki.berkeley.edu (128.32.162.54) 
      access to collection of Polish goodies also available via 
      anonymous ftp from the same site 
   sunsite.unc.edu 
      russian studies or history - Soviet archives from Library 
      of Congress 

Other GOPHERS exist all over the net and the majority of them 
contain duplicate pointer selections.  To list all of the GOPHERS
would forsake brevity.  However, there are unique collections 
distibuted around the net which the author will persist in 
exploring and, hopefully, eventually catalogue. 

(Pasek, Herro and personal findings)

WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)                              3.9

     The World Wide Web is a searching system that works with
Hypertext links; operative words in a sentence contained in a
file links to other files in a webbed chain topics and
definitions.  Every file becomes, in effect, a menu.
     The newly prevalent user interfaces such as Mosaic use this
system glide through the branches of the internet.  My
experience has revealed a good number of bugs; links that are not
open, dead ends and otherwise thwarted searches.  However, this
sustem does hold a great deal of promise, so don't dispair.

WWW PUBLIC CLIENTS                                3.10

To access telnet to the host address and login as . 
 
fserv.kfki.hu 
sun.uakom.cz
vms.huji.ac.il

(Pasek and personal findings)
 
ADJUNCT SYSTEMS                                   4.0
===============

Network and communication systems are in place that operate
independently of the internet but provide e-mail, USENET and/or
direct log-on links to the internet.  I still have a great deal
of exploring ahead of me in regards to these resources.  However,
what follows are my findings so far.

RELCOM                                            4.1
 
Relcom (Russian ELectronic COMmunications) services include 
e-mail, USENET news and access to USENET archives. The messages 
are mostly in Russian and encoded in KOI-8. Cyrillic fonts and 
keyboard maps are available from mailserv@kiae.su or using 
anonymous ftp from . 
 
Getting info: send to  as the message body 
              a line containing "HELP" 
              send to  as the message body 
              a line containing "LIST" 
Subscribing:  send to  as the message body 
              a line containing "SUBSCRIBE group_name". 
Help:          

(I break away here to some helpful commentary from Jan Labanowski
pulled up on WWW, with some minor modifications of my own, which
includes the Relcom Help file - The Editor, Ian)

This is a file, which I (Jan Labanowski, jkl@osc.edu) derived
from the original help file for RELCOM news and added my comments
and explanations. Of course, the original help file is good,
compact, etc. But I hope, that some of you may find my
experiences with RELCOM news useful. The original help file which
I received from RELCOM is called relcom.help.  Comments are
pointed to with end-notes (a) and (b).
 
Jan Labanowski 
Ohio Supercomputer Center 
jkl@osc.edu  JKL@OHSTPY.BITNET 

1. What is RELCOM News. 
   In the USA (my perspective) and in the WEST in general, there
   is USENET, called News. There are thousands of news groups,   
with topics varying from math to sex stories. They differ from   
electronic mail in this, that the news articles are shared by   
all people at the given machine, while e-mail (even if   
messages are identical) is stored separately for each mailbox.   
Also, before you can read the news articles your administrator   
has to install the service on your machine. Even, if the news   
are installed on your machine, you do not have to read them,   
and after some time, the old articles (even if you did not   
read them) will be deleted automatically to make disk space   
for new ones. Network news are mostly in English, or if in a   
foreigh language, the English (should say Latin) letters are   
used to transliterate foreign languages. I understand that   
RELCOM works in a similar way in countries of former USSR.   
However, the major difference is that articles are mostly in   
Russian and the codes for Russian characters require 8 bits   
per character, while Latin codes require only 7 bits. Since   
many western network news servers, mailers, gateways, etc. are   
not prepared to handle full 8-bit character codes they mess up   
the Russian letters. Formally, RELCOM news service uses so   
called RELCOM-KOI8 character set. The lower 0-127 character   
codes are standard ASCII codes (i.e., contain all Latin   
letters, punctuation, digits, etc.) while codes above 127   
contain Russian letters. However, there are ways to obtain   
intact 8-bit codes, by encoding them, and decoding them later   
at the final destination.  
 
2. How to obtain RELCOM news?  
   You need to send special message to the address:
     newsserv@newcom.kiae.su 
   as described below. You send commands to the
     newsserv@newcom.kiae.su 
   it will react by sending you things back. Below are the
   annotated entries from the original RELCOM HELP file. Do not  
   be surprised with long delays in obtaining files from RELCOM  
   server.

This automatic mail server relays news articles from Relcom and
USENET via usual E-mail.  If you want to use server you should
send e-mail letter containing the list of commands to the address
     newsserv@newcom.kiae.su. 
Subject is ignored.  Command name can be in upper or lower case,
all other arguments are case sensitive. 
 
Here comes brief description of available commands: 
 
HELP                Send this file.  All subsequent commands are
                    ignored.  
LIST                Give the list of all news groups with brief
                    description.  
LIST     Give the list of news groups from the given
                    hierarchy. For example, "list comp.sources".
SUBSCRIBE group     Subscribe to group in notify mode. 
                    Server will periodically send you a list of
                    commands to retrieve new articles in the
                    following format:
                            GROUP news.answers 
                            -ART 100 size author subject 
                    In order to get the articles you interested
                    in simply uncomment corresponding commands
                    and send it back to server.  Don't remove
                    GROUP commands! 
     ** see (a) **
FEED group          Subscribe to group in feed mode.  All new
                    articles from a group will be immediately
                    sent to you. 
                    WARNING: 
                        Never use feed mode if you're not      
                         completely sure that you need *all*
                         articles and your e-mail connection is
                         stable and permanent. This mode can
                         easily cause e-mail traffic jams making
                         impossible to send or receive any
                         electronic mail at your machine. This
                         can result in disconnecting your machine
                         from net by some administrator, so be
                         careful. 
     ** see (b) **
RFEED size group    Subscribe to group in restricted feed
                    mode. All articles smaller than given size
                    (in kilobytes) will be sent to you as in feed
                    mode.  Lists of bigger articles will be sent
                    to you as in notify mode. 
UNSUBSCRIBE group       Unsubscribe from group. 
UNSUBSCRIBE all         Unsubscribe from all groups. 
FORGET              If you were subscribed to some groups, and
                    later unsubscribed, server continues to send
                    you lists of newly created or deleted news
                    groups, hoping that you might get interested
                    in them. To finally unconnect from server
                    give command FORGET. 
CHECK               Show the list of groups subscribed to. 
GROUP group         Go to the group.  This group becames
                    "current" (for commands ARTICLE, INDEX,
                    LINDEX). 
ARTICLE number      Send specified article. 
ARTICLE  Send an article with specified message-id. 
INDEX [number [number]] Show list of articles in current group. 
                    The format of the list is the same as in
                    subscribe mode.  Arguments specify the range
                    of article numbers. 
                    INDEX          - all articles 
                    INDEX 700      - all articles from number 700
                    INDEX 700 750  - articles in range 700...750 
LINDEX [number [number]] Show detailed list of articles in the
                    following format: 
                            Issue: 
Subject: From: Date: Message-ID: Size: PACK Enable packing mode. All articles sent to you will be packed, compressed and encoded. This will reduce the volume and the total number of transmitted files. This mode is highly recommended. You should unpack received batches by one of the special utilities UNBATCH, UUNPACK or use mailer BML, which decodes batches on the fly. You can get the UNBATCH program (with sources) for MSDOS by command SEND uunpack-dos or for Unix 386 SEND unbatch-386 or for Xenix 286 SEND unbatch-286 If you need only sources of unpack programs you can get them by SEND uunpack-src and SEND unbatch-src PACK OFF Disable packing mode. SEND Show list of files available on request. You can get these files by command SEND with parameters. SEND file Get a file. The following files are available: unbatch-dos 29k program UNBATCH for MSDOS unbatch-386 42k program UNBATCH for Unix 386 unbatch-286 38k program UNBATCH for Xenix 286 unbatch-src 20k sources of program UNBATCH uunpack-dos 23k program UUNPACK for MSDOS uunpack-286 29k program UUNPACK for Xenix 286 uunpack-src 8k sources of program UUNPACK GSTAT [hierarchy] Get information about subscriptions on groups. For each group is listed: name, number of articles (approximately), and number of subscribers in SUBSCRIBE, FEED and RFEED modes. USTAT [address] Get information about user subscriptions. User address is a regular expression in SH style. For example, command "ustat alex@*" will print information about users with name alex. For each user is listed: name, total number of groups, and number of subscriptions in SUBSCRIBE, FEED and RFEED modes. TIME Print current date and time. QUIT Shows server that all commands are over. WARNING: don't use user name "uucp" or "news" to receive news - server ignores these names. In order to submit an article you should send the article with the header field "Newsgroups:" containing the comma-separated list of newsgroups (all newsgroups should be valid) to the address newsserv@newcom.kiae.su. The default distribution of the message is the whole world, so you should think twice before sending your article. Remember it will be read by thousands or millions of readers around the world, so your message should not be offensive, should not violate copyright laws. Never write things already written by somebody. It's better to restrict distribution area to be as small as possible. You can do it using the header field "Distribution:". Valid distributions are: world, eunet, su, russia, moscow Example: % mailx newsserv@newcom.kiae.su Subject: testing ~: headline Newsgroups relcom.test (continue) ~: headline Distribution su (continue) Twas brilling.... EOT % Please send all questions to usenet@kiae.su. Bug reports and propositions please send to Serge Vakulenko, vak@kiae.su. (a) Example: At some point, I have sent the following message to newsserv@newcom.kiae.su PACK SUBSCRIBE relcom.commercial.chemical SUBSCRIBE relcom.commercial.estate SUBSCRIBE relcom.commercial.infoserv SUBSCRIBE relcom.commercial.medicine SUBSCRIBE relcom.commercial.money SUBSCRIBE relcom.commercial.transport SUBSCRIBE relcom.renews SUBSCRIBE relcom.jusinf QUIT PACK means, send me the news in a packed form (however, the subjects are always sent to you as normal text, without packing). SUBSCRIBE means: send me subjects of new articles appearing in the above newsgroups. As a result, I receive from time to time a message like: < To: jkl@osc.edu Subject: List of new Usenet articles From: newsserv@newcom.kiae.su Date: Sun, 10 Jan 93 20:15:24 GMT Sender: news-service@newcom.kiae.su X-Class: Slow Status: R To order articles remove `-' from the first column of corresponding lines and send the list back to newsserv@newcom.kiae.su. GROUP relcom.jusinf -ART 16 3.2K gorin@jusinf.msk.su nOWYE CENY NA \KSPRESS-INFORMACI@... > If I decide to get the message back, I am sending the following message to newsserv@newcom.kiae.su (not news-service@newcom.kiae.su !) GROUP relcom.jusinf ART 16 3.2K gorin@jusinf.msk.su nOWYE CENY NA i.e., I only remove the '-' in front of ART and the full text of the article is returned to me in a PACKed from. (b) The FEED is different from SUBSCRIBE command above. For example, sending PACK FEED relcom.spbnews QUIT to newsserv@newcom.kiae.su will result in sending you the PACKed news in this group (in this case: relcom.spbnews) without asking. You will get them, even if you do not want them. They will came as PACKed. You will need the program to unpack them. You cannot read packed news directly. 3. What to do with a compressed file which you get from RELCOM? When you get the PACKed news from RELCOM server, you need to unpack/unbatch them. The format used for packing the news is not a simple uuencode. The news articles are additionally compressed. The programs which unpacks the news is called unbatch. The original program is simple to use. Assuming that you saved the message from RELCOM as a file: relnews.mail, you just do: unbatch relnews.mail and your original relnews.mail file is replaced with a uncompressed file with news articles in KOI8 character set on UNIX machine or Alternativnyj/Lexicon character code on the PC. There is a cosmetic problem with the unbatch program. It overwrites the original file. With very minor modifications, I produced the unbatch1. This program takes 1 or 2 arguments on the command line. If one argument is used, it acts as the original, i.e., overwrites the original file with an unbatched file. If two arguments are used, the second argument is a name of the output file. For example: unbatch1 relnews.mail relnews.unb will leave the relnews.mail file intact, and save unbatched/uncompressed file as relnews.unb. 4. How to read the news. If you have Cyrillic display fonts, you can just display your file. For fonts for X-windows and MS-Windows are available. You need to install them. Consult the documentation how to do it. The other possibility is to transliterate the file, i.e., change codes for Russian letters to some Latin letters or sequences of Latin letters. The TRANSLIT program will allow you to do it, but there are many others if you do not like it. 5. How to print the news? I use LaTeX with WNCYR fonts. But there are many other ways and packages (e.g., the "Diplomat Software" 714-474-6968 offers fonts for MS-DOS and popular wordprocessors for a modest price). You can also get the Dmitri Vulis public domain package, ADDPAGE for the PC which has fonts for Epson printers. Jan Labanowski jkl@osc.edu *** *** Relcom hierarchy: relcom.ads relcom.ads.comp relcom.archives relcom.archives.d relcom.bbs relcom.commerce relcom.commerce.audio-video relcom.commerce.chemical relcom.commerce.construction relcom.commerce.consume relcom.commerce.energy relcom.commerce.estate relcom.commerce.food relcom.commerce.household relcom.commerce.infoserv relcom.commerce.jobs relcom.commerce.machinery relcom.commerce.medicine relcom.commerce.metals relcom.commerce.money relcom.commerce.orgtech relcom.commerce.other relcom.commerce.stocks relcom.commerce.talk relcom.commerce.tobacco relcom.commerce.transport relcom.exnet relcom.exnet.quote relcom.fido.ru.hacker relcom.fido.ru.networks relcom.fido.ru.unix relcom.fido.su.books relcom.fido.su.c-c++ relcom.fido.su.general relcom.fido.su.hardw relcom.fido.su.music relcom.fido.su.pol relcom.fido.su.tolkien relcom.fido.su.virus relcom.humor relcom.infomarket.quote relcom.infomarket.talk relcom.jusinf relcom.kids relcom.lan relcom.maps relcom.mn.economics relcom.mn.faxdigest relcom.mn.laws relcom.mn.newspaper relcom.msdos relcom.music relcom.netnews relcom.netnews.big relcom.penpals relcom.politics relcom.postf.business relcom.postf.exchange relcom.postf.military relcom.postf.news relcom.postmasters relcom.postmasters.d relcom.sources relcom.talk relcom.teleputing relcom.terms relcom.test relcom.wtc relcom.x suug suug.org ukr.archives ukr.binf ukr.commerce ukr.commerce.chemical ukr.commerce.energy ukr.commerce.food ukr.commerce.household ukr.commerce.machinery ukr.commerce.metals ukr.commerce.misc ukr.commerce.money ukr.commerce.orgtech ukr.commerce.price-lists ukr.commerce.talky ukr.comp.newprods ukr.dilo.arts ukr.dilo.law ukr.dilo.marketnews ukr.dilo.money ukr.finance ukr.gc.chronical ukr.gc.normativ ukr.law ukr.maps ukr.netnews ukr.nodes ukr.press.dovira.svit ukr.rules ukr.soft-house NOTE: Relcom server works as a mail server. Due to the traffic volume and network limitations to obtain a response may take a day or two. Be patient. If it does not work, try to communicate with Relcom using European Internet nodes as relays (nodes in Sweden or Finland are a good choice). (Pasek) SOVSET 4.2 Soviet and East European Studies Data Library Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) 1800 K Street, NW Suite 400 Washington D.C. 20006 Tel: 202-775-3257 Fax: 202-775-3199 email: support@sovset.org ftp sovset.org Fees per hour: internet $15 CompuServe $25 (non-profit use) corporate $40 Login and password requires advance arrangement. Offers conferences, speech texts, news services, regular reports and a phone and address directory for Moscow. Sarah C. Helmstadter, Executive Director PEACENET AND GLASNET 4.3 GLASNET INFORMATION Version 3.1 10 March 1994 "GlasNet (R)" - A Computer Network for Pro Bono Groups in the Former Soviet Union, GlasNet is the first non-profit, non-governmental telecommunications network to be established in the Former Soviet Union. It is a network for people there who have access to electronic communication equipment; typically a personal computer of some kind and a modem (See Appendix B below for more information on modems). Anyone with access to the Internet of any of the networks listed below can exchange Email with GlasNet users. GlasNet was featured in a March 9, 1994 page 1 story in the New York Times on Russian networking by Michael Specter; a text file version can be supplied by Email; send requests to glasadmin@igc.apc.org GlasNet's goal is to offer easy and inexpensive information exchange between diverse groups within the Former Soviet Union, including scientists, educators, cultural groups, journalists, environmentalists, business people, computer enthusiasts, and so forth. It also enables Former Soviet Union groups and individuals to correspond electronically with their counterparts in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. GlasNet is non-profit (revenues are kept equal to expenses), and serves the communication needs of pro bono groups in the Former Soviet Union who could not otherwise afford modern communication services. Charges to GlasNet users in the Former Soviet Union are entirely in rubles, and will be kept as low as possible while maintaining good system services. GlasNet has been operating in Moscow since March of 1991. Thanks to the International Science Foundation for the Former Soviet Union, GlasNet Moscow now has a direct connection to the Internet. GlasNet service between Moscow and other parts of the Internet is reliable and rapid; typical Email messages exchanged between the US and Moscow arrive at their destination a second or two after they were sent. GlasNet is a member of the Association for Progressive Communications (APC), a global network-of-networks with host computers in Argentina (Wamani), Australia (Pegasus), Brasil (AlterNex), Canada (Web), Ecuador (Ecuanex), England (GreenNet), Germany (ComLink), Mexico (LaNeta), Nicaragua (Nicarao), Slovenija (Histria), South Africa (SangoNet), Sweden (NordNet), Ukraine (GLUK), Uruguay (Chasque), and the USA (IGC - PeaceNet,EcoNet) GlasNet has recently upgraded to Sun Microsystems equipment in Moscow; this should increase perfomance by a factor of 2 to 4. The Moscow in-dial modems support speeds from 300 to 14,400 bps, and a wide range of protocols including V.32 bis, V.42, and MNP. The current GlasNet Moscow hardware configuration supports up to 4,000 user accounts; of these up to 24 can be on line simultaneously, depending on how many access ports (local Moscow dial-in, ISKRA, and X.25) are available. GlasNet also has a host computer system operating in Kiev, operating since December of 1992. For more detail on this system send Email to glasadmin@igc.apc.org. Collaboration among scientists, business people, and other specialists in the USA has been facilitated in recent years through the use of computer-based electronic mail and conferencing capabilities, allowing people in different parts of the country to work on joint projects, access data banks and information in computers all across the country, and electronically publish new work. These powerful capabilties are now becoming available to the general public, the non-profit community in particular, through such services as PeaceNet and EcoNet. It is the goal of GlasNet to provide similar performance-enhancing services to the fast-emerging independent sectors in the Former Soviet Union, offering users easy access to friends, colleagues, and potential associates in the Former Soviet Union and abroad. Users from many other places in the Former Soviet Union regularly access their GlasNet accounts using long distance calls, GlasNet accounts have been accessed in this way from as far away as Irkutsk and Vladivostok. Access is also available from many Former Soviet Union cities via local calls to Public Data Networks making X.25 connections to GlasNet. See Appendix C for more details. Services available to GlasNet users include: Electronic Mail GlasNet subscribers are able to exchange messages with others on GlasNet, other users within APC, or with users belonging to many other networks through APC "gateways." Networks accessible through these gateways include: America Online, Applelink, ARPANET, AT&T LandMail, AT&T MAIL, Bitnet, BIX, BOLNET, CARINET, CGNET, CIGnet, COMLINK, COMPUSERVE, CONNECT, CSNet, DASNET, DELPHI, DIALCOM, EasyLink, ECUANEX, EIES, ENVOY 100, FIDONET, GALAXY, GeoNet, GTE, HandsNet, HURACAN, IMC, INET, Internet, JANET, MCI MAIL, MicroLink, NASA, NWI, OMNET, PANDORA, PINET, Portal, PsychNet, ScienceNet, SOURCE, TCN, Telecom Gold, Telemail, THE META NETWORK, TWICS, Tymnet/Ontyme, UNDP;UNDRO;UNINET, UNISON, UUCP Mail Net, WELL, WORKNET, OMNET, Usenet Electronic mail (Email) overcomes the cost and problems of telephone use. An electronic mail message is composed at the user's convenience, then quickly sent by the GlasNet computer to its destination in the addressee's host computer mailbox, which may be in Moscow or halfway around the world. When the person to whom it is sent logs in to his or her local network host computer, the message is waiting. Transmission is immediate, and there is no need for both parties to be present simultaneously. Costs are less than long distance telephone calls or those of air parcel services. FAX GlasNet provides its users with the ability to send messages to FAX machines. FAX messages are sent directly from Moscow to FAX machines in the Former Soviet Union; FAX messages are sent as Email from the Former Soviet Union to California, and then as FAX messages from there to FAX machines in the US. Similarly FAX messages can be sent as Email from the US to GlasNet, and from there as FAX messages to FAX machines in the Former Soviet Union. Most users find that this system provides more reliable delivery than direct FAX-in-the-US to FAX-in-the-Former Soviet Union calls. Because of the bit-mapped nature of FAX encoded messages it is not possible for users to receive FAX messages via the character-oriented GlasNet system. Electronic Conferencing An electronic conference is a written conversation with other users; a conference is created to discuss a particular topic or to facilitate communication between people working on a joint project. GlasNet users can start their own conferences on topics of interest, or are able to participate in on-going conferences on other APC networks. Although anyone on any of the networks listed above can exchange Email with GlasNet subscribers, people in the US must be subscribers to the IGC networks PeaceNet or EcoNet in order to participate in IGC or APC conferences with GlasNet users. Contact information for IGC is given below. Many of the Usenet News Groups available through Internet are carried on GlasNet and can be posted to or read from by GlasNet users. GlasMail (R) People without a personal computer and a modem can still communicate using GlasNet's GlasMail service: in November 1991 GlasNet began offering this new service. It allows reliable communication between people who have no Email or other equipment. Messages can be delivered using phone calls, FAXes, Email, letters, or telegrams. The messages are sent rapidly and reliably between the USA and the Former Soviet Union by Email; they are translated into the specified form and dispatched from Moscow (or San Francisco at the US end). Prices range from $5 to $18 for normal messages, depending on the speed and cost of delivery. Delivery can be as short as 1 day from from receipt of a message in the USA to its delivery in the Former Soviet Union. Messages from the Former Soviet Union to the USA can be delivered more rapidly. For detailed information on GlasMail send a request to glasmail@igc.apc.org. ------------------------------------------------------------ The Russian staff of GlasNet opposed the coup of August 1991 and courageously kept GlasNet operating during it. GlasNet was used to keep GlasNet users informed about the fight against the coup, and to pass information about it back to the West. Similar information exchange was maintained during the siege of the Parliament Building in October of 1993. For further information on GlasNet, please use the contacts below. In the Former Soviet Union: GlasNet User Support Email: support@glas.apc.org GlasNet Technical Information Alexander Zaytsev, Technical Director. Email: alexz@glas.apc.org GlasNet Moscow office address: 107074 Moscow ul. Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya, 4 suite 16 3rd floor (near metro KRASNYE VOROTA) voice telephone: (095)207-0704 voice telephone and FAX: 207-0889 Data telephone numbers: 262-4857, 262-0209. Both 4857 and 0209 are equipped with rotaries; incoming calls are automatically routed to one of 16 data lines. In the USA: David Caulkins Barbara Loebner GlasNet USA 437 Mundel Way Los Altos, CA 94022 (415)948-5753 voice (415)948-1474 fax Email: glasadmin@igc.apc.org (from Internet) People in the USA who wish to access GlasNet and do not have an account on one of the APC-connected gateway networks listed above should get an account on one of the IGC networks: PeaceNet or EcoNet. For information about these networks, contact: IGC 18 de Boom San Francisco, CA 94107 (415)442-0220 (415)546-1794 fax Email: igcoffice@igc.apc.org It is possible to sponsor a GlasNet account for colleagues in the Former Soviet Union by making dollar payments to IGC in the USA; accounts sponsored in this way are effectively free to users in the Former Soviet Union. There are two ways to pay for GlasNet accounts: 1. From the USA by establishing a Sponsored Account. These cost $25 per month, plus a one-time $60 setup charge. The $25 per month covers connect, gateway, and storage charges up to 600,000 characters per month of traffic. Special services (FAX, telex, X.25 access, etc) are not included in the $25 monthly charge. Sponsored Accounts are paid for in dollars to the GlasNet USA office. After an initial payment to set up the account (typically $85; $25 1st month and $60 one-time setup fee), accounts are billed monthly in the USA. Sponsored Accounts are often used by people visiting the Former Soviet Union. For visits less than 3 weeks, guest accounts are available for $20. 2. People in the Former Soviet Union can pay directly in rubles. See Appendices for more. IGC CONFERENCES 4.4 The user interface I have encountered on PeaceNet is fairly friendly; the user just selects "c" for "conferences" from the main menu. However, one must know the name of the conference desired; searching for topical keywords to locate a conference is easy at SFSUVAX1 with tin but time consuming at PeaceNet. However, these conferences frequently provide a thoughtful forum for discussion and therefore may be worth seeking out. Conference list update as of March 2, 1994 included are in the catagories xUSSR, Disarmament, Economics, Europe, Human Rights, Mailing Lists, Military and Security, News, Nuclear Weapons and Testing: aiha.info -- Information of general interest to professionals and students interested in the provision of technical assistance, particularly health care-related aid--to the peoples of the former Soviet Union. aiha.med-pol -- Invites participation from health professionals and others interested in health issues. It supports the AIHA U.S.-NIS hospital partnerships by providing a means to exchange views on health care policy issues. aiha.med-treat -- This conference invites participation from doctors and others interested in health issues. It supports the AIHA U.S.-NIS hospital partnerships by providing a means to exchange information on clinical issues of interest to the partnerships. act.wb94 -- For groups around the world to post information about actions and campaigns planned for the 50th Anniversary of the Bretton Woods Institutions (World Bank [WB] and International Monetary Fund [IMF]). ax.fondad -- Forum on Debt and Development (FONDAD), following up on the problems of external debt in the so-called 'third world', including analyses and concrete actions within social movements. ai.general -- This is a public conference where Amnesty International news releases, short reports, campaign actions and other human rights and Amnesty International information is posted. ai.letter -- For activating users to send letters/telexes/faxes to Government officials all over the world in order to urge them to release prisoners of conscience. The letters are written by Amnesty International. ai.students -- Amnesty International news and ideas of interest to students and youth in general. ai.uan -- Amnesty International's Urgent Action Alerts on torture and other human rights violations. (See also the ai.letters conference.) aihre.general -- Discussion of human rights education. Please post comments, suggestions, information, and the like. bas.magazine -- The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists specializes in nuclear and arms control issues, international affairs, and species survival. Conference includes: expanded contents pages, yearly index, history of the Doomsday Clock, & ordering info. basic.nato -- News and information on NATO's policies, weapons, strategies, important meetings, research activities and the response of the peace movement. Sponsored by the British American Security Information Council. baltic.news -- News and views from and about the Baltic countries. bitl.baltic -- BitNet ListServ conference on the Baltic Republics and related topics. Includes ongoing discussion, news, and networking. bitl.biodiv -- This list has been created to discuss the "Needs and Specifications for a Biodiversity Network," which is the theme of the workshop that will be held in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, in July 27-31, 1992. bitl.conslink -- A BITNET LISTSERV discussion on Biological Conservation. bitl.devel -- Bitnet mailing list about development issues. bitl.newlists -- Announcements of new bitnet listserve mailing lists. BitNet lists originate outside of the APC systems as mailing lists (i.e., their messages arrive via email). They may be imported into conferences. Contact 'support' for more information. bitl.politics -- Echoes the Bitnet list on politics. bitl.sanet -- Echo of the Sustainable Agriculture Network's mail group, SANET-MG. Its purpose is to share ideas, information, questions, etc. about networking sustainable agriculture information. bitl.seanet -- This is an echo of a BitNet mailing list which is a discussion of South East Asian regions, including politics, human rights, environmental issues, and other issues. bitl.travel -- Echoes the BitNet mailing list, TRAVEL-L, which is a forum for the discussion of travel and tourism. bitl.pen -- BitNet list of the Progressive Economist Network piped in to a conference. Includes ongoing discussion of economic and social issues by leading progressive economists bitl.russia -- BitNet mailing list on Russia, ported to a conference. ctb.clips -- Up to date information via the major wire services on the state of the nuclear testing negotiations in Geneva and other related topics. The conference, run by the CTB Clearinghouse will be updated daily at 10 am cdi.military -- This conference is for the distribution of materials from the Center for Defense Information and the discussion of related topics. ccic.fpr -- From July 1993 to May 1994, CCIC will be preparing foreign policy recommendations for the Government of Canada in 3 principal areas: i) building a framework for our common future; ii) economic justice; and iii) human rights and democratic development. child.crc -- UNICEF Convention on the Rights of the Child. coc.brettonwds -- Invites academics and NGOs around the world to evaluate the Bretton Woods institutions (World Bank, IMF, & GATT) and consider proposals for new global economic arrangements that would advance sustainable, equitable and participatory development. disarm.seas -- General discussion and information for activists and others interested in issues around Disarm the Seas. dev.worldbank -- News and discussion of World Bank activities and their impact on the environment, development and economics of the world, especially third world countries. disarm.ctb-npt -- For NGOs preparing special NGO report on possible amendments of the current treaties CTB (Comprehensive Test Ban) and NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty) and a place to elaborate approaches for strengthening the int'l regime of non-proliferation. disarm.testing -- Information and discussion about nuclear weapons tests, actions of American Peace Test and related issues, including nonviolence. disarm.trans -- Information about the transport of nuclear materials and warheads by road, air, rail, sea, etc. May include time-urgent information on convoys on the road. earthtimes -- This conference contains "Earth Times", an independent newspaper focusing on sustainable development and such interrelated economic and social issues of the international system as environement, population and trade. econ.ethinvest -- A conference about socially responsible and ethical investing. econ.green -- Green Economics econ.justice -- Info/stats/studies on such topics as Reverse Robin Hood or Reagan/Bush era; regressive taxation; S&L ripoff; etc. econ.saps -- For NGOs, trade unions and popular movements working to halt IMF and World Bank structural adjustment programs (SAPs) and make room for grassroots alternatives. Para los que trabajan para detener los programas de ajuste estructural (PAEs). econ.saps.uk -- To exchange information on research and campaign work of UK NGOs working on Structural Adjustment Programmes related issues. Although a UK conference, NGOs, academics, or any other group working on this issue will have the opportunity to participate. end.convention -- Reports and discussion around the European Nuclear Disarmament Conventions and process. energy.eur -- Discussion of all aspects of European energy, particularly energy conservation and renewable energy sources. env.europe -- Environmental news and discussion for all Europe. exyugo.refugee -- News for and about people who have been forced to leave the ex-Yugoslavian region, and wish to contact those left behind - and vice versa. Also for contact between those within the region, and between those abroad. env.newsletter -- This is a read only full-text library of periodicals, occasional publications and papers published by organizations active in local, regional, national and international environmental issues. end.convention -- Reports and discussion around the European Nuclear Disarmament Conventions and process. env.centasia -- To discuss environmental, political, and related issues pertaining to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kirghistan, Turkmenistan, Tadjikistan, and Azerbaijan, former republics of the Soviet Union. Feel free to post in Russian. env.cis -- Up-to-date forum on the growing numbers of U.S. and ex-Soviet NGO activists pursuing the goal of global environment sustainabilty with an emphasis on the protection of ex-Soviet eco-systems. env.siberia -- News, information & discussion about protecting Siberia's environment. env.ukraine -- Environmental issues in the Ukraine and discussion on the problems of sustainable development for the states in transition. gen.shortwave -- Provides transcripts of news items and more detailed reports from shortwave radio broadcasts. Uploaded daily. greenbusiness -- Issues of socially and environmentally responsible business. gen.newsletter -- Articles for newsletters about a variety of issues. Most are taken from other conferences on the networks. Pull from here for your newsletter, or share your newsletter articles here. glasnost.news -- News, information and discussion of political change in Eastern Europe. gen.racism -- Discussion of racism and other forms of color-based discrimination. hr.development -- News and information on the right to development as established by the Commission on Human Rights as a basic human right. hr.eurmideast -- For information on human rights in the countries in Europe and the Middle East only. hrnet.asia-pac -- Human rights issues in Asia and the Pacific. hrnet.children -- Human rights issues concerning children. hrnet.eur-mide -- Human rights issues in Europe and the Middle East. hrnet.intllaw -- Human rights issues in international law. hrnet.ngo-gen -- Human rights issues of general interest to NGOs. hrnet.racism -- Materials concerning racism and xenophobia as they pertain to human rights. hrnet.ref-migr -- Human rights issues concerning refugees and migration. hrnet.un-doc -- Offical documents of the United Nations concerning human rights issues. hrnet.un-gen -- General human rights information regarding the United Nations. hr.eurmideast -- For information on human rights in the countries in Europe and the Middle East only. ipb.news -- Publications from and news about the International Peace Bureau. News about campaigns and actions around the world, coverage on inter-governmental negotiations and UN reform, and news and discussion about other IPB events. ippnw.campaign -- To aid in the planning and execution of campaigns to end the nuclear weapons era. ippnw.ceasefir -- Announcements of nuclear testing, proposed actions and strategy and other relevant information towards a Comprehensive Test Ban. ippnw.docs -- Various documents collected by IPPNW that deal with nuclear war and related issues. ippnw.student -- For medical students and friends associated with International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War, discussing opportunities for international collaboration on topics of disarmament, environment, development and medical community. intl.economics -- Discussion of a variety of international economic issues. ips.cuba -- Receives news articles from IPS concerning Cuba. ips.english -- Current, English-language news stories from Inter Press Service. isar.journal -- This conference contains "Surviving Together", a journal on relations with the former Soviet Union. "Surviving Together" is pubilished by ISAR, and covers development, the environment, economics, women, civil society and other topics. justice.europe -- News and information from the Statewatch bulletin, the Campaign Against Racism and Fascism [CARF] magazine, and the BISS information exchange on the European state. lcs.letsoft -- Issues on LETSystem software development. lets.canada -- News and information for and about LETS (Local Employment and Trading Systems) in Canada. lets.oz -- Local Employment Trading System - a money-free work exchange economy. Australian groups inform and communicate here. lets.uk -- News about Local Economic Trading Systems (LETS) in the UK. lets.women -- This LETS conference acts as a forum for support and general information sharing. list.econdev -- This is an Internet/Bitnet mailing list populated by a small group of online consultants who are using the Internet to discover ways of using information in regional economic development. list.ipe -- International Political Economy Net is a member of the consortium of communications for a sustainable future, and includes students and scholars interested in IPE. labr.cis -- The conference contains postings about trade unions/workers movements, economics and other related issues in Russia/CIS. list.natosci -- Information on the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) Science and Environment Programmes. list.bosnet -- Echoes the Internet mailing list on Bosnia. list.croatia -- Echoes the Internet mailing list on Croatia. list.jugo -- Echoes an Internet mailing list. list.macedonia -- Echoes the Internet mailing list for the Macedonian News Network. list.nato -- This list will distribute public data from NATO such as press releases, speeches, NATO articles, communiquies, NATO REVIEW, fellowship programmes, NATO fact sheets, etc. list.serbia -- Echoes the Internet mailing list for the Serbian News Network. list.vreme -- Articles from Vreme, Serbia's leading opposition news magazine. list.holocaust -- Mirrors the BitNet list, HOLOCAUS, which covers the Holocaust and related topics such as anti-Semitism; Jewish history in the 1930s and '40s; and closely related themes in the history of World War II, Germany, and international diplomacy. list.hrscience -- A group of scholars interested in the SCIENTIFIC study of human rights. Discussion here is intended to encourage the quantitative study of human rights by putting human rights researchers in contact with each other. list.yrights -- Bitnet/Internet list on the human rights of youth and children. list.berita -- Malaysian and Singaporean news, SEA news of interest to Malaysians and Singaporeans, and Islam-related news. For news only -- NO DISCUSSIONS, PLEASE. list.carr -- Mirrors the Computer Assisted Reporting & Research mailing list. list.ipe -- International Political Economy Net is a member of the consortium of communications for a sustainable future, and includes students and scholars interested in IPE. list.iprussia -- Share ideas, experiences, questions, answers, plans, and progress relative to implementing the Internet in Russia. list.nation -- Discussion of articles and issues as they appear in the Nation Magazine. Mirrors a internet mailing list. This conference is not sponsored by The Nation. list.nethappen -- Internet list which will distribute other network information services type announcements. list.pcorps -- Echoes the Internet mailing list on the Peace Corps (PCORPS-L). list.rego.us -- A meeting place for sharing information an discussions about "reinventing government"--the process of making government work better and cost less. list.rusag -- Communication among Americans and between Americans and Russians on the state of Russian agriculture and the desirability for cooperation in this field. list.sfbike -- Internet mailing list to discuss bicycle transportation issues in the San Francisco area. list.russia-telecoms -- Non-technical discussions about telecommunications in Russia. motherjones -- This conference contains articles from "Mother Jones", one of the United State's premier alternative magazines. mlateral.news -- Summarizes recent developments in multilateral governmental bodies with special attention paid to structural issues. Topics include the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, GATT, OECD, and others. multimonitor -- Contains the publication "The Mulitnational Monitor" mil.accidents -- Accidents and incidents involving military/nuclear ships, convoys, equipment. military.index -- Contents pages from defense and military publications are posted here. metta.news -- METTA's newsletter, Gardenia, provides historical accounts, resources and analysis of events that advance the knowledge and use of nonviolence throughout the world. nation.samples -- Public conference with sample articles from the Nation, one of the Unites State's oldest progressive magazines. nonviolence.to -- Contains bi-monthly publication 'Nonviolence Today' to increase the understanding and use of nonviolence. nw.general -- Tracks nuclear warheads and components as they travel on public U.S. transportation routes. npsg.milflight -- Current information about environmental and health impacts of military training and testing throughout the world with emphasis on Canada, U.S. & Europe. pa.lobby -- Current detailed information on legislation that Peace Action (formerly SANE/Freeze) supports, including strategy plans and action alerts. pa.local -- Local SANE/Freeze groups share successes, frustrations, expertise with each other. pa.media -- Sample press releases, statements and letters-to-the-editor supplied by Peace Action (formerly SANE/Freeze). pax.sanctions -- A forum for news and discussion about the use and abuse of sanctions. pns.baltic -- Originating from PeaceNet Sweden/NordNet, discussion of networking projects in around the Baltic Sea. pns.news -- News in and around PNS - Nordnet. pbi.news -- Newsletters and reports published by Peace Brigades International, and discussions on human rights and nonviolent movements in Latin America and South Asia. prn.radionews -- News and current affairs from Public Radio News Service (PRNS). psr.bulletins -- Medical consequences of nuclear weapons and nuclear war. Sponsored by the Physicians for Social Responsibility. reg.ussr -- News and information about the former Soviet Union, Russia, CIS. rainfor.worldbank -- Information about World Bank activities pertaining to rainforest issues. reg.eeurope -- News and information from and about East Europe. reg.exyugoslav -- News of the former republics of Yugoslavia. reg.weurope -- News and information about Western Europe. servas.travel -- General information about Servas International, a global organization that promotes person-to-person contact between hosts and travelers interested in promoting world peace. sci.military -- Discussion about science & the military. sgr.news -- For open discussion on matters of interest to SGR (Scientists for Global Responsibilty); incorporating Electronics and Computing for Peace (ECP), Psychologists for Peace (PfP), and Scientists Against Nuclear Arms (SANA). sipri.press -- Carries documents, publications, press releases, and parts of the Yearbook following the status of disarmament and armaments in the world, all published by SIPRI, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI. transcont.news -- The Transatlantic Peace Newsletter from the peace work foundation 'Die Schwelle' in West Germany, offering a European perspective on issues of disarmament, peace work and the churches. toes.general -- Discussion and information about The Other Economic Summit (TOES), including alternative economics. toes.summit -- Used during The Other Economic Summit (TOES) to share information about issues arising from the summit. (Will soon be merged with toes.general.) trade.canada -- Economic and social repercussions of the freetrade deal between Canada and the US. trade.library -- A repository for trade related information: fact sheets, press releases, statistics, statements or other pertinent documents. trade.news -- Summaries of the latest news stories relating to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and other trade issues. trade.strategy -- An open dialogue on trade-related issues. Much of the discussion may spring from reactions to the news reported in the TRADE.NEWS bulletin. Anyone can contribute. IATP started the conference but does not control its content. trc.archive -- The Trade Resource Consortium archive houses studies and other scholarly works that directly respond to the current research needs of international non-governmental organizations concerned with trade and environment related issues. toxics.militar -- Information about toxics and environmental problems at military bases. Co-sponsored by Arms Control Research Center (ARC), Foreign Bases Project (FBP), National Toxics Campaign Fund (NTSF). transcont.news -- The Transatlantic Peace Newsletter from the peace work foundation 'Die Schwelle' in West Germany, offering a European perspective on issues of disarmament, peace work and the churches. vana.peace -- Issues of war, peace and militarism from the point of view of veterans. women.east-west -- A forum to discuss gender issues in the radically altered societies of East and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. Sponsored by the Network of East-West Women (NEWW). yugo.antiwar -- Discussion about the work for peaceful solutions of the yugoslavian domestic war and conflicts. Several languages are used here. zmagazine -- Conference of miscellaneous articles published in "Z" Magazine and discussion by readers. (GlasNet and IGC) CONCISE 4.5 CONCISE is the COSINE Network's Central Information Service for Europe. CONCISE provides information about COSINE projects, networks, conferences, networking products, special interest groups, project databases, directories, Email services and other networked services in Europe. Available by e-mail, ftp and gopher. To obtain a copy of User guide on CONCISE send e-mail to (automated distribution): as a message: start help cug-info You can also contact CONCISE helpdesk at: (Pasek) SOVAM TELEPORT 4.6 Poster: Wayne Chinander Date: Wed, 1 Sep 1993 08:11:44 -0500 Reply-To: Russia & her neighbors (note: this list is defunct) I just returned from spending nearly two months in Russia, most of that time in St. Petersburg. I used SOVAM to communicate and found their service and prices to be quite good. To send, or receive, a page (or part thereof) message cost $1.50 payable in $ or rubles. I did not have to subscribe to anything. When I wished to send a message I composed it in their office on their unit and they sent it. They would hold return messages until I picked them up. The price of $1.50 per page compared to $11-14 to fax from tourist hotels or pay $1.60 per minute from the central phone office seemed a real bargain. The staff spoke English well and were interesting to talk to and quite friendly. If you want information about other e-mail services, or e-mail addresses in the FSU check out my e-mail files on the EX-USSR data base available at: (Telnet) ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu. SOVAM Teleport is located at No. 30 Nevsky Prospekt which is the same building as the Nevsky Prospekt metro station. It is not easy to locate, however. As you exit the metro go east on Nevsky to the second set of wooden doors (the first set of wooden doors is a music institute), go past the dezhurnaya to the left, around the elevator and out the back door, cross the courtyard and enter the building on the opposite side, go to the third floor, turn left and go to the far end of the corridor and turn left again and the door will be on your right. The Sovam office actually overlooks the canal immediately west of the metro. Living conditions in St.P. vary considerably, depending on earnings. Despite much difficulty most people still get by. I was amazed by the patience and sense of fatalism that keeps people from despair and from protest. Most of the citizens concentrate on the necessity of keeping their family going and try to maintain a "normal" lifestyle while virtually ignoring politics. Statistics that I was given by a professor about standard of living: In Russia .4% earn $300-1000/mo. 3.6% earn $150-300/mo. 10.0% earn $80-150/mo. (middle class) 85-86% earn below UNESCO poverty line Current average earnings/mo. $20-25 Highschool teachers earn $10/mo. On those wages most people do get by if they are careful, food and housing are still affordable but clothing is nearly impossible. For example, say you have a teenager who needs a new pair of sneakers, a new shirt and a new pair of pants for school (only one of each, mind you). If you buy cheap and poorly made Russian or Chinese clothes and shoes you can get by for about $15-18. If you purchase decent quality (usually imported from East Europe) the total price goes to $50-60. To put that in some kind of perspective, lets imagine that the average American earns $2,000/mo.--the same shoes, shirt and pants would cost $1,500-1,800 for the cheap stuff and $5,000-6,000 for decent but still not great stuff. Needless to say, clothing is a wonderful, and much appreciated gift or trade item these days. Wayne Chinander, University of Kansas Thank You, Wayne. Contact: Sovam Teleport 3220 Sacramento Street San Francisco, CA 94115 Check out the IREX discussion of Sovam Teleport in Appendix E. MANAGING WHAT YOU GET 5.0 News reading programs have a file area that allows the user to store the names of the news groups of interest. Consult your documentation. Develop a system of reading the news quickly, marking off what you have read and therefore making available new information next time you go to your subjects. On a less frequent but still regular basis the user should look for the arrival of new groups that can provide unanticipated knowledge, insights or, hoppefully, inspiration. Promptly set up a filing system consisting of different topics so that you can save documents in a meaningful way that will allow for their retrieval. A "mail" file and a "sources" file won't do. A breakdown of specific catagories, appropriately labeled, is necessary if one wishes to archive items of interest. Most mail systems have "folder" systems as well, allowing the user to store mail as discreet mail messages instead of incorporating them into blanket subject files. Check your documentation. I have a tendency to leave newspapers and magazines around, it of course becomes a mumbo jumbo pile of information that is no longer useful because finding a desired specific item becomes virtually impossible; if you do this with electronic information, you get the same thing, but worse... I recommend reading the mail everyday and discarding the majority of what comes in. Read it and trash it. If you know you won't have time to read it and you suspect it may not be of any interest, trash it. If you read it and it is something you suspect will be applicable, ask yourself if it is something that will be easy to retrieve later in an archive. If yes, trash it. If no, save it to a file meaningfully labeled. Allowing yourself to get overwhelmed is a difficult condition to recover from. The best medicine is prevention. In the future, I imagine one will be able to set up mail filters and automatic file handlers. If anything REALLY excites me about the "superhighway" babble, it's the prospect of of having a customized hypertext newsmagazine sent to me electronicly on a daily basis! PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES 6.0 Of course, the biggest problem with the internet resources is the first one that the new user encounters: What's out there? How do I get it? The lack of a map for, and the unmappability of, the net poses frustrations. Once one acquires a degree of comfort with the search applications of the net, a greater appreciation for the aesthetic of its dynamic, amorphous nature becomes possible. Though it's unfortunate, and it speaks poorly of us as a species, it seems to be true that when you get a group together to discuss a topic seriously, maintaining focus, relevance and respect is a formidable challenge. When you throw open the door to the whole world, the challenge grows. I have observed in the Usenet groups and, to a lesser degree, in the reader participation mailing lists, excessive "flaming" and obscenities as well as "noise generators." By "flaming" I mean the little spats that flare up, minor name calling and general loss of focus on substantive conversation. By "noise generators" I refer to the pseudo-mechanical and prolific generation of diatribes and polemics. The noise generator problem goes beyond differences of opinions; it entails a deep seated disrespect for other viewpoints altogether. The automatonistic discourse leads one to speculate that these are literally "propoganda machines;" computer programs with routines that read postings in search of rhetorical keywords that trigger automatic responses. This phenomenon put both the Ukraine and Russia listserv mailing lists, and their associate Usenet groups, out of business as of December, 1993. Other groups are falling victim to this phenomenon. Last time I looked at talk.politics.soviet, insistent and repetitive exhortations from a few emphatic individuals espousing their viewpoints had, in their vehemence and redundancy, rendered the material virtually unreadable. On the one hand, we dare not offend our own civil libertarian sensibilities and censor these voices. On the other hand, the phenomenon of zealous contentiousness drowning out dispassionate conversation is an infringement on the rights of the community of discussants at large. A major effort to standardize a set of reasonable boundaries which would confine the scope of debate, only to a degree that is sufficient, within parameters which allow for the maintainence of an environment where all views can be dispassionately discussed is long overdue. I have not sought out the free speech discussion groups or the counsel of civil liberty ethicist, but perhaps it's time; maybe my next work will be titled, "The Academy versus the Rabble." Maybe not. Another nuisance that I've encountered a few times are chain-letters. Someone thinks it's funny to send the "pass this on to twenty others or you're doomed" message along. When it has gone around a while, the accumulation of headers and routing information can grow quite large. Chain letters can get spread far and wide if they are distributed by a listserv list. The loss of productive time can be quite irritating but is best responded to by sending it along to the administrator of the system of the person who sent to you; let them know that one of their users is abusing the scarce network resources. The commercialization of the internet, though probably necessary to fund upgrading, poses a different sort of challenge. Suppose a user looks for the latest from Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty and finds, "This portion of RFE/RL is brought to you by COMMERZBANK - German know how in global finance! Frankfort, Germany." Shall there be no refuge from the barrage of sponsor's messages? Will that mean that coverage of topics disagreeable to the sponsor shall not be presented? If the plethora of infomercials on American cable television is an indicator, we can expect to require extra time to access the desired information for combing through copious amounts of sponsor's messages along the way. Well, let's hope not. Commercialization also may see efforts to corner the market on specific bodies of information that otherwise could reasonably be freely available. If successful, this would see information entrepreneurs cordon off sets of data, perhaps data that is already paid for by tax payers, and charge the public again for what they already own. The academic community must maintain vigilance against efforts with these aims. There are groups on the net that focus on the issues brought up by commercialization. Perhaps I'll see you there... CONCLUSION 7.0 When all of these pioneer trails and backroads give way to the "superhighway," I imagine that a practical way to integrate all of these sources would be in the form of a true electronic magazine & road map that would utilize these sources, compile, cite and present the informational products in a hypertext digest. Perhaps the real excitement that this superhighway can offer those of us with interests that range beyond entertainment can look forward to visual and audio data to supplement the textual data distributions currently available. The U.S. Information Agency's "Problems of Communism" suffered a quiet demise a few years ago. It is unfortunate that it was not replaced by a renewed publication, say, "Problems of Conversion," that would deal with both challenges of demilitarizing national economies and developing market mechanisms to supplant the command structures that formerly held sway in the communist states. There is an ongoing need to scrutinize the social, economic and political institutions in their current state of flux. The effects that the ebb and flow in these areas has on human rights and security issues demands our continuing attention. Such a product available as an electronic hypertext magazine would be a great advancement for those interested in Post-Soviet Studies. So much has happened, on so many fronts, and there is still so much to come! Dalshe! Dalshe! Dalshe! DISCLAIMER 7.1 I have not discussed internet applications such as WAIS, Veronica, Archie, or Jughead. Full discussions of utilizing FTP and Telnet are offered by Krol (see Appendix E sources). There are, no doubt, others that I may have neglected to delve into. The dynamic nature of the net makes being acquainted with all nuances and emerging applications an enormous task; practically a full time endeavor. If the understanding that I have presented here concerning the use of the internet systems or the status of these resources contains any inaccuracies, or could be more illuminating and concise, please feel free to contact the author at any time with corrections. I have searched and poked high and low through the internet corridors looking for these resources. In an effort to prevent reinvention of the wheel, I have incorporated materials gathered by others when I have discovered that I have been reproducing their work. This report stands on the shoulders of giants; to those who have preceeded me, whose steps I discovered along my own paths, and have made their findings public: Thank You! Given that all material was gathered from public sites and this is not a commercial product, prior permission was not sought. The author regrets if a contributor was unwittingly unacknowledged; please contact the author where this may be a concern. Hats off to the primary, secondary and tertiary sources are no doubt in order. Likewise, permission to duplicate this material is hereby granted provided that it is NOT SOLD. Contact the author for questions concerning commercial duplication. In any event, I ask that the subsequent use of these findings properly cite this source. In addition to the sources cited, this material came from reading newsgroups, joining lists, groping, furrowing my brows and winging it; trying things out to see how they worked. Thus, any errors of ommission or commision and tYpos are solely my responsibility. Do not bug my predecessors for any short comings in this report! The information is as accurate as I have been able to determine. Now we all know as much as is gathered here... :-) If you have a correction or update to the information provided by this compendium, or you know something which should be included, please drop me a line - it will be greatly appreciated. THE AUTHOR / EDITOR 7.2 __________________________ __|_ _|__ | |_| Ian Kallen |_| | | 740-A 14th Street #403 | | San Francisco, California | | 94114 | | ikallen@sfsuvax1.sfsu.edu | | _ _ | |__|_| ** PEACE ** |_|_| |_______________________| OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO alternative contact methods: ikallen@sfsuvax1.sfsu.edu (1st preference email address) ikallen@igc.apc.org (2nd choice) CompuServe (3rd choice) OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO SOURCES 7.3 Pasek, Zbigniew J. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor "EASTERN_EUROPEAN LIST OF ELECTRONIC (COMPUTER- ACCESIBLE) RESOURCES AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNET." available through the anonymous ftp at ; directory: /pub/polish/networks and also by Gopher at the same site. zbigniew@engin.umich.edu with input from allan.pollard@um.cc.umich.edu (Allan Pollard) PANKWCZ@PLWRTU11.BITNET (Jerzy Pankiewicz) rzm@mat.torun.edu.pl (Rafal Maszkowski) wowoc@acs.ucalgary.ca (Witold Owoc) fekete@bcuxs2.bc.edu (Zoli Fekete) (Vadim Maslov) Herro, Steve (1994) Head of Reference and Information Services at St. Norbert College Todd Wehr Library herrsj@sncac.snc.edu An Internet Resource List for International Trade and World Commerce Herro cites the following sources: Austin, Terese and Tsang, Kim (1993). Government Sources of Business and Economic Information on the Internet, [Online]. Available Gopher: gopher.lib.umich.edu. Directory: What's New and Featured Resources/Clearinghouse for Subject- Oriented Internet Resource Guides/Guides on the Social Sciences/Business, Economics; T. Austin, K. Tsang. Goffe, Bill (1993). Resources for Economists on the Internet, [Online]. Available Gopher: gopher.lib.umich.edu. Directory: What's New and Featured Resources/Clearinghouse for Subject-Oriented Internet Resource Guides/Guides on the Social Sciences/Economics; B. Goffe. Gumprecht, Blake (1993). Internet Resources for Government Information, [Online]. Available Gopher: gopher.lib.umich.edu. Directory: What's New and Featured Resources/Clearinghouse for Subject-Oriented Internet Resource Guides/Guides on the Social Sciences/Government, Politics; B. Gumprecht. Scott, Peter (1993). Hytelnet 6.6, [Online]. Available Telnet: access.usask.ca, login: hytelnet. Yanoff, Scott. (1993, December 16). Special Internet Connections. [e-mail to Steven Herro], [Online]. Available email: herrsj@sncac.snc.edu. ADDITIONAL SOURCES/SUGGESTED READING 7.4 BULGARIAN FAQ ftp.umcs.maine.edu /pub/Bulgaria CZECH RESOURCES ON CESNET ftp.vslib.cz /pub/cesnet/cesnet-resources.txt ELECTRIC MYSTIC'S GUIDE Non-technical survey of all major documents, archives and services of relevance to religious studies ftp panda1.uottawa.ca (137.122.6.16) /pub/religion GERMAN FAQ ftp rtfm.mit.edu (18.72.1.58) /pub/usenet-by-group/soc.culture.german HUNGARIAN ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ftp rtfm.mit.edu (18.72.1.58) /pub/usenet-by-group/soc.culture.magyar JEWISH FAQ ftp israel.nysernet.org /israel/lists/scj-faq LIST OF LANGUAGE LISTS ftp colossus.irlearn.ucd.ie /everson LIST OF MAILING LISTS rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet/news.answers/mail/mailing-lists MACEDONIAN FAQ ftp.uts.edu.au (138.25.16.1) /pub/MAKEDON MOTHER OF ALL EASTERN EUROPEAN LISTS (see Pasek) poniecki.berkeley.edu /pub/polish/network/EE-MotherList POLISH NETWORK RESOURCES LIST rzm@mat.torun.edu.pl (Rafal Maszkowski) INFO ON COMPUTER NETWORKS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE ======================================================= Up-to-date information about the network in Poland is brought by "Pigulki". Archived at , and . There is a bundle of e-mailing and networking in xSU related files available from . The list of those files can be obtained by sending INDEX List-L to the server and then can be retrieved using GET file_name. Try archives of all lists run from this server: EC, RUSSIA. An example of how to retrieve these files: To get the uucp map, send the command GET RUSSIA UUCPMAP as the _body_ of an e-mail or interactive message to LISTSERV at INDYCMS (CREN) or listserv@indycms.iupui.edu (Internet). There is also a good info on e-mail to xSU, network nodes, BBS's Glasmail archived on . Some files contain also info on e-mail nodes in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Kazachstan, Yugoslavia, and Estonia. To get index of those files send command (automated distribution): GET E-EUROPE INDEX Appendix A GlasNet Ruble Price List In order to adjust GlasNet prices for inflation, we have adopted our own pricing standard, ECS (Electronic Communication Scrip). The scrip carries a value based on US Dollars, but is paid in rubles as determined by the current dollar-ruble exchange rate. Use of the ECS unit will allow us to quote GlasNet prices which will not change with inflation. GlasNet users are required to maintain a positive credit balance; they must pay GlasNet enough money to cover all existing charges. It is desirable for users to keep on deposit with GlasNet enough money so that their charges for at least a few weeks into the future are covered. 1 ECS = $0.15 At the most recent exchange rate of the ruble, 1 ECS was equivalent to 170 rubles All prices below are quoted in ECS: Opening a GlasNet account: Organization - 120 ECS Individual - 60 ECS UUCP account - 300 ECS Group account - 240 + 15 * N ECS, where N is the number of people in the group. Transactions. 1. Monthly. 1.1. Average Storage on host computer over limit (100K)............... 5.00 / Kilobyte 1.2. Probable writing off for undelivered faxes/telexes................... 80 % returned 2. Daily. 2.1. Account maintenance. 2.1.1. Active Standard................ 1.00 2.1.2. Active Individual.............. 0.50 2.1.3. Active Associated NGO.......... 0.75 2.1.4. Active Associated Individuals.. 0.45 2.1.5. Active UUCP.................... 10.00 2.1.6. Active Group ( N subaccounts ). 3.00 + 0.60 * N 2.1.7. Forward Only................... 0.05 2.1.8. Frozen......................... 0.05 2.2. Sessions 2.2.1. Direct call to Moscow (PEAK)... 0.05 / minute 2.2.2. (OFF-PEAK)... 0.02 / minute 2.2.3. X.25 TSI Moscow PAD (PEAK)... 0.12 / minute 2.2.4. (OFF-PEAK)... 0.07 / minute 2.2.5. Organizations.... 0.40 / minute Individuals...... 0.20 / minute ... more later (Tallinn, Kiev, Odessa; INFOTEL, etc) 3. Gateways. 3.1. Sending Email ( 1 KC = 1000 characters ) 3.1.1. Local GlasNet.................. 0.00 3.1.2. xSU............................ 0.02 / mes + 0.03 / KC 3.1.3. APC............................ 0.10 / mes + 0.10 / KC 3.1.4. Internet/Bitnet................ 0.10 / mes + 0.16 / KC 3.1.5. DASNET gate.................... 0.20 / mes + 1.00 / KC 3.2. Receiving International Email over monthly limit (200 K)....... 0.15 / K 3.3. Sending Fax ( 1 Page = 2000 characters ) 3.3.1. Moscow......................... 0.25 1-st + 0.15 Add-l 3.3.2. xSU............................ 0.55 1-st + 0.30 Add-l 3.3.3. US, Canada, Mexico............. 8.50 1-st + 7.50 Add-l 3.3.4. England........................ 4.50 1-st + 4.00 Add-l 3.3.5. Brazil......................... 8.50 1-st + 7.50 Add-l 3.3.6. Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, Chekhia, Slovakia....................... 3.50 1-st + 3.00 Add-l 3.3.7. Rest of the Europe............. 9.00 1-st + 7.00 Add-l 3.3.8. Others......................... 16.00 1-st + 13.00 Add-l 3.4. Sending Telex ( 1 minute is about 300 chars ) 3.4.1. Russia........................... 0.60 / min 3.4.2. FSU.............................. 0.80 / min 3.4.3. US, Canada....................... 2.90 / min 3.4.4. Australia........................ 4.30 / min ... more later 4. One-time Transactions. 4.1. Account Setup 4.1.1. Standard................... 20.00 4.1.2. Individual................. 10.00 4.1.3. Associated NGO............. 20.00 4.1.4. Associated Individual...... 15.00 4.1.5. UUCP....................... 100.00 4.1.6. Group ( N subaccounts ).... 40.00 + 15.00 * N 4.1.7. Add subaccount to existing Group........ 10.00 4.2. Freeze/Unfreeze Account.............. 5.00 4.3. Forward Setup/Remove................. 5.00 4.4. Rename Account.......................10.00 4.5. Move an Account to another Group.....10.00 4.6. Update User Directory Entry..........10.00 4.7. Payment Registered................... Amount / ECS Rate 4.8. Write off............................ Required Qty of ECS 4.9. Paper Invoice Submission............. 3.00 4.10. Fax Invoice Submission.............. 5.00 All charges are subject to change. GlasNet will make every effort to keep users fully informed about changes in its charges. DISCOUNTS ========= 1. Monthly fee includes 1 hour of free off-peak connect time. Any free time left over at the end of the month is not applicable to subsequent months. 2. All new subscribers receive an additional free off-peak hour of connect time during their first 30 days of use. 3. All public conferences are free to use. Private conferences are charged storage at the same rate as for mail folders of 1 R per kilobyte per month to the user requesting or facilitating the conference. 4. All GlasNet users are given 100 kilobytes (50 pages) of free storage space. You will be notified on the Network if you are exceeding the free storage limit. 5. If you refer a new user to the Network, you will receive 2 free off-peak hours of free connect time. This credit can be used over any number of months. 6. Special discounts may be granted to individuals and NGOs whose goals and objectives are in accordance with GlasNet Bylaws. Please, contact support to discuss the discounts. Disclaimer: GlasNet is not responsible for the poor quality of the phone lines. Please report to the Moscow Telephone Company (MGTS) (ph. 299-8759). Those who have poor quality Moscow lines might consider use of the TSI or Infotel PADs, or the ISKRA line. See Table 1 of Appendix B. We'll also accept accounts sponsored by US organizations and individuals. In this case payments can be made in dollars to IGC or through the GlasNet USA Director Dave Caulkins. Appendix B MODEMS Modems suitable for use with GlasNet should have the following characteristics: 1) Error correction (MNP protocol levels 2 - 5, or V.42) This is very important ! 2) Hayes-compatible AT command set 3) Supports data rates of 300 to 14,400 bps; 2,400 bps has been found to work well for most users. Modems of this kind are available at electronics and computer stores in the USA, either retail or mail-order. Prices range from approximately $30 to $100 for an internal modem (plugs into a slot in a PC), or $100 to $300 to for an external modem (in a separate box, and usable with a PC, Macintosh, or any other computer with a serial port). Copies of communications software (MTE or Procomm) can be obtained from the US or Moscow offices of GlasNet. V.32bis modems which will operate at any speed from 1,200 to 14,400 bps are widely avaialable in the USA, and prices for this kind of modem are dropping rapidly. Almost all GlasNet in-dial modems are V.32bis. Communications software packages recommended for use with GlasNet are: For IBM PC computers and equivalent clones using the DOS operating system: Procomm For use with non-MNP modems - MTE or MTEZ For Macintosh computers: Red Ryder, Microphone, or White Knight Other communications software packages have a high probablility of working with GlasNet. Connecting a Modem to the Former Soviet Union Telephone System There are two ways to connect a modem with an RJ11 modular connector to the telephone system in the Former Soviet Union. I) ADAPTER Adapters that plug into an Former Soviet Union telephone jack and accept an RJ11 modular plug of the kind used by US telephone equipment and modems can be purchased from: Pharmec 18/2 Ulitsa Dokukina 129226 Moscow 187-3979 tel 187-4522 FAX or in the US from: 4D Company 444 E 87th St. Suite 4F New York, NY 10128 (212)427-4151 (212)427-4572 fax There are two models; Model 122 has a female RJ11 and a female Former Soviet Union phone connector; it accomodates a modem and a Russian telephone simultaneously. Model 121 has a female RJ11 and accomodates only a modem. I) DO IT YOURSELF KIT Parts and tools needed: 1) Two clip leads, about 45 centimeters long. Clip leads are insulated wires with alligator clips on both ends 2) A modular plug cable. This is a standard cable of the type you would use to connect your telephone to a modular wall jack in the USA. Items 1) and 2) are available from Radio Shack and most other consumer electronic stores. 3) A small screwdriver with a blade about 3 millimeters wide. Procedure: Temporary Attachment A) Cut the cable of 2) in half. Strip the center two connectors in the cut end of one of the halves. In the US these two wires are called Ring (red wire insulation) and Tip (green wire insulation). Attach one of the clip leads of 1) to each of these wires. B) Use the 3) screwdriver to take the cover off the Former Soviet Union telephone wall jack. Attach the other ends of the clip leads from A) to the two wires in the jack. Connect the modular plug to the modem. Permanent Attachment C) Cut the cable of 2) in half. Strip the center two connectors in the cut end of one of the halves, exposing about 1 centimeter of the electrical wire beneath the insulation. In the US these two wires are called Ring (red wire insulation) and Tip (green wire insulation). D) Use the 3) screwdriver to take the cover off the Former Soviet Union telephone wall jack. The two wires in the jack are secured by screws; loosen these with the screwdriver, wrap one of the wires from C) on each so that both the new and old wires are under the screws. Tighten the screws to secure all the wires. Guide the cable of C) out of the Former Soviet Union wall jack, and put the cover back on so that it does not pinch the cable. Connect the modular plug to the modem. ================================================================= Appendix C Access to GlasNet Moscow via local or long distance calls, and by local call access to X.25 Public Data Networks (PDNs) from other cities. Table 1 December, 1993 Price * cents/min +--------------------------------------------------------+----+ |City | Modem Number | Command | | +-----------------+----------------+---------------------+----+ |Moscow | | | | | direct-dial |(095)262-4857 | none |0.60| | | 262-0209 | none |0.60| | | 262-2072 | none |0.60| | | 971-5968 | none |0.60| | | | | | | ISKRA |(097)29-073 | | | | TSI X.25 PAD |(095)262-7020 |nui(GLAS) 7 [or 7] |2.25| | Infotel PAD |(095)958-0226 |n4100300039proba-.GLAS|2.25| | Note:The ISKRA line and the TSI and Infotel PAD numbers| | | can provide good-quality local Moscow connections | | | for those users with Moscow telephone exchanges | | | that do not work well for data communications. | | | Call GlasNet User Support at 207-0704 or 207-0889 | | | for more information. | | | | | | | |St. Petersburg |(812)168-5162 |nui(GLASP)7 [or 7] | 6.3| | voice 568-3953 | 168-5474 | | | | | 168-3263 | | | | | 168-2750 | | | |Tallinn |(0142)31-3116 |con7 |13.2| |Kiev |(044)229-6005 |nui(GLAS) 7 [or 7] | 7.8| | voice 229-3369 | 229-8239 |nui(GLAS) 7 [or 7] | | |Odessa |(048)21-6294 |nui(GLAS) 7 [or 7] | 7.8| | voice 21-6281 | | | | |Kazan |(8432)36-1673 | | | | Command: n4117300002connect-4102101600 | 4.5| |Voronezh 55-5467 |(0732)56-1941 | | | | Command: n4118300002connect-4102101600 | 4.5| |Izhevsk |(3412)056 | | | | Command: n4519300001proba-4102101600 | 4.5| |Nizhny Novgorod |(8312)31-9041 | | | | Command: n4114300002connect-4102101600 | 4.5| |Ekaterinburg |(3432)56-2665 | | | | Command: n4510300003connect-4102101600 | 4.5| |Novosibirsk |(3832)98-1110 | | | | Command: n4812300001connect-4102101600 | 9.0| |Vladivostok |(4232)22-0310 | | | | Command: n4921300001connect-4102101600 | 9.0| +-------------------------------------------------------------+ * - prices are quoted in US cents but billed in rubles If user has a NUI to any other X.25 Network, he can use any of the following addresses (NUA) to login to GlasNet: 0250441022016000 024420703707 025029904070507 For example, you can use IASNET for this, but you must pay them for the NUI and the X.25 traffic. Here is some information about IASNET: City Code Admin Sovam Support Modem number ----------------------------------------------------------------- Moscow 095 229-1118 947-5586 932-6765 Baku 8922 66-3995 66-4689 66-0079 Kazan 8432 54-3200 74-3430 76-3688 76-3272 Kiev 044 296-4238 296-4247 296-4292 296-4283 Minsk 0172 26-4560 26-4560 20-7674 Riga 0132 55-1133 55-1133 36-3041 St. Pete 812 311-7129 311-8412 311-0365 Ufa 3472 22-5500 22-4827 52-8647 Vladivostok 4232 25-2731 25-2598 25-4633 25-3455 25-9711 Yerevan 8852 28-5082 28-2951 28-4230 Future X.25 access: In 1994 we anticipate adding Alma-Ata, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, and Petrozavodsk INFOTEL has entry points in: Moscow, Rostov-na-Donu, Ekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Novgorod, Barnaul, Krasnoyarsk, Voronezh, Izhevsk, Kazan, Tumen, Vladivostok, Nizhnii Novgorod, St-Petersburg. It has plans to establish X.25 nodes in all Russian regional centers. fax: +7(095)200-3208 or 954-0895 telex: 411727 voice: 252-1212, 9549600 Transinform - expects to get new equipment from Alcatel and start expansion to additional cities. Rospak - JV with IASNET, has and install a number of X.25 entry points in smaller cities of Russia (fax: +7(095)229-3804, voice: 229-3237) Appendix D The Eastern Board of Trade (EBOT): Computer accessed On-Line lead information for Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Newly Independent States. 22647 Ventura Boulevard, Suite 122 Woodland Hills, CA 91364 Commodities, goods, services, investment offers, real estate opportunities and other commercial prospects are accessible via this BBS. Direct dial via modem; not net accessible (as of yet). Call for fee schedule. EBOT data (8-N-1): 818-884-0295 voice (L.A. area): 818-347-9230 voice (S.F. area): 415-355-5430 ____________________________________________________________ International Trade BBS BBS Telephone: 803-472-3754 E-Mail: USA@WORLD.STD.COM The International Trade BBS is a message and advertisement databank which deals with worldwide exports, imports, services, and direct investments. Because this commercial bulletin board system uses PCBoard software, subscribers have many powerful interactive search and retrieval abilities. This information may be viewed on-line or downloaded to any PC (DOS, Mac, other) with a modem and communications software. There are two levels of access for individuals: SUBSCRIBERS have full access to all advertisements and commercial postings on the International Trade BBS, with 30 minutes/day access, no connect time charges, and no limitations on downloads. The cost of subscription is $20 per year. SUBSCRIBERS have access to two conferences: ** Main - a general discussion forum ** International Trade - commercial postings from subscribers and non-subscribers NON-SUBSCRIBERS may post an unlimited number of commercial advertisements for placement in the International Trade conference. An advertisement may be placed by dialing the BBS directly and posting a message to the SYSOP, or by sending it by e-mail to USA@WORLD.STD.COM. There is no connect time charge; access is limited to 10 minutes/day. International Trade BBS Subscription Application Form Remit To: James W. Reese, SYSOP BBS Telephone: 803-472-3754 International Trade BBS 8-N-1/Hayes Ultra 9600/PCBoard 15.0 401 Lake Road Voice/Fax: 803-472-4527 Inman, SC 29349-9605 USA E-Mail: USA@WORLD.STD.COM All Checks or Money Orders must be made payable to James W. Reese. Please allow from 10 to 14 days for clearance of all non-certified funds (longer for international drafts). International Trade BBS Subscription: __ 1 Year Subscription, 30 minutes/day, 9600bps max.....$20.00 no connect time charges Method of payment: (please check only one) __ Personal Check __ Company Check __ Money Order __ Certified Bank Draft Login Specifications (please print): FirstName: ____________________ LastName (optional): ____________________ Password (12 characters max/ 1 minimum): ____________________ Optional Information Name: __________________________________________________________ Address: __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Voice: _______________________Fax:_________________________ Appendix E Boosting the Baud Rate: E-mail and Connectivity in the Former Soviet Union (as of November, 1993) Bill Fick International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX) Khlebnyi pereulok, d. 8 121069 Moscow, Russia fick@glas.apc.org Michael Neubert Library of Congress European Division Washington, DC 20540-5531 mneu@seq1.loc.gov Prepared for the 25th National Convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies Panel on "Internet Resources for Slavic and East European Studies" The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of Tony Byrne (IREX), Wes Cole, Olga Galkina (IREX), Eric Johnson (Library of Congress), and David Kraus (Library of Congress. All sins of omission (and commission) are those of the authors. "Electronic mail differs from the other [Internet] applications... because it is not an "end to end" service: the sending and receiving machine need not be able to communicate directly with each other to make it work. If you correctly address a message, the network will take it from there. You needn't know much about what's going on." (Krol, p. 95.) Introduction While Ed Krol's statement that "you needn't know much about what's going on" may be true for most American users of the Internet (i.e., those with "domestic" interests), it is useful for those interested in communicating with individuals in the former Soviet Union to have a somewhat deeper understanding. In particular, it is necessary to have a fairly healthy knowledge of the technical aspects (if not every detail) if one is interested in using e-mail while actually in the former Soviet Union. This paper describes the potential for the use of e-mail and e- mail resources on the Internet by area studies scholars interested in the former Soviet Union. It's an attempt to depict the infrastructural developments, user demographic tendencies, and information resources of particular interest to scholars in Slavic studies. Attached as appendices are the IREX guide to e- mail use in the former Soviet Union and other "more technical" documents. Allan Urbanic's paper (also presented at this panel) discusses resources that are available for area specialists via the Internet through "real time" access (or as Krol puts it, an "end to end" service) and require access to the international TCP/IP network (the Internet). In many ways, however, the possibilities of e-mail and e-mail accessible resources may be of more interest for area specialists in this field because at present there is very limited "real time" access to the Internet within the FSU. This paper does not attempt to describe the entire universe of connectivity and electronic communications with the FSU. It cannot even claim to be completely accurate, since networking initiatives are growing like weeds and the situation is changing daily. Network development initiatives sponsored by NATO, NASA, and DOE (among others) are beyond the scope of this paper and while they will, of course, have implications for general infrastructure and physical network growth, they are tangential to the story we are trying to tell here. Probably the most common use of e-mail by area studies scholars is for one-to-one communication with one another. This can facilitate scholarly cooperation that would have been impossible without it (such as the writing of this paper by co-authors located in Moscow and Washington, DC). But there are many other uses of e-mail, such as the ability to send message not just from "one-to-one," but "one-to-many," which allows discussion groups and electronic serials. And there are e-mail tools that enable e-mail users to make use of many of the same tools that "real time" access can provide. Sources of General Information There are many basic guides to the use of the Internet; some emphasize e-mail more than others. Ed Krol's _The Whole Internet: User's Guide & Catalog_ has been considered the best and most balanced introduction to the Internet including the uses of e-mail. This field changes so quickly, however, that it is already becoming somewhat dated. Several new guides have been recently published. Especially good is _The Internet Guide for New Users_ (Dorn), which includes significant information not included in _The Whole Internet_, in part because it has been more recently published, but also because it simply goes into more detail. As noted by Allan Urbanic, there are many other new guides available at the nearest good bookstore (or library), however the two above are the most comprehensive that the authors have seen. Note that such guides do not describe system-specific aspects of e-mail use (other than the basics of some UNIX-based systems)--for those, it is necessary to seek the appropriate institutional technical assistance. Dorn's _Internet Guide_ provides by far the most detailed discussion of specific e-mail systems, covering the different "add-on" interfaces for UNIX- based e-mail systems such as ELM and PINE as well as several others. There are also several (very) new guides available only electronically. An excellent one is the _Guide to Network Resource Tools_ (The EARN Association, electronic sources) which includes detailed explanations of how to manipulate many Internet tools through e-mail that are most commonly accessed in real time (the most recent version of this guide is dated September 15, 1993). A more basic guide for beginners is the _Big Dummy's Guide to the Internet: A Round Trip through Global Networks, Life in Cyberspace, and Everything_ (Gaffin, electronic sources), which is twice as long but covers much the same amount of material (and is also very current, the most recent version dated September 20, 1993). It is assumed here that most readers of this paper who live in the West are affiliated with an academic or other institution which provides them with access to the Internet and/or e-mail. However there are many commercial providers of both e-mail alone as well as access to the Internet. _Connecting to the Internet_ is a new book that covers this subject in great detail. (Estrada) It is also possible to get information about public access to the Internet by contacting the InterNIC Information Center's "Reference Desk" by phone at (800) 444-4345 or (619) 455-4600. Another resource is the "Public Dialup Internet Access List (PDIAL), which can be retrieved by e-mail commands and gives extensive information about public access to the Internet. (Kaminski, electronic sources) Many specialists in this field have been using Sovset' for e-mail services. Sovset' is operated by the Center for Stategic & International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, DC, and can be reached at (202) 775-3257 (Sovset' also has a "data library" related to Russian and East European area studies). And of course there are seemingly endless other choices for e-mail services, such as America Online and Compuserve, among others. Some Technical Background There are two distinct types of electronic mail interfaces, and the type which a given computer network offers will affect that network's ability to provide a broader array of Internet services once real-time connectivity is achieved. Mail systems based on UUCP, or "UNIX to UNIX copy", work off-line. In other words, the end user prepares his or her mail in a special editor and then a special program dials the nearest network host, sends and receives batches of mail automatically, and then hangs up, allowing the user to read and process mail offline at leisure. This kind of setup is very convenient and efficiently minimizes time on-line, which is important where telephone line quality is poor or calls expensive. This type of e-mail interface is the most common one found in active use in Russia and most of the former Soviet Union today. Unfortunately, access to real-time Internet services cannot be adapted to this kind of interface, in particular the ability to telnet to remote computers. The second type of electronic mail interfaces are those mail systems that are interactive or on-line. The user actually works while connected on-line to the host computer itself to send and receive mail, although it is, of course, possible to upload previously-prepared texts and download incoming mail to a local PC. Access to other Internet services can be readily adapted to this kind of setup. Once the network host has a real-time Internet link, it is relatively simple to provide direct Internet access for users working on-line with the host machine. Connectivity In the last two years there has been considerable progress in the network connectivity of the countries of Eastern Europe, the Baltic States, and the former Soviet Union. Figure one shows the level of connectivity in each of those countries. Note that certain elements of this table are deceiving. Figure One Connectivity Table for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union ----- AL Albania (Republic of) --u-- AM Armenia --U-- AZ Azerbaijan --UF- BY Belarus ----- BA Bosnia-Hercegovina bIUF- BG Bulgaria (Republic of) -IuFo HR Croatia BIUF- CZ Czech Republic -IUF- EE Estonia (Republic of) --UF- GE Georgia (Republic of) BIUFo HU Hungary (Republic of) --Uf- KZ Kazakhstan --U-- KG Kyrgyzstan -IUF- LV Latvia (Republic of) --UFo LT Lithuania ----- ?? Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of) --UF- MD Moldova (Republic of) BIUF- PL Poland (Republic of) BI-f- RO Romania BiUF- RU Russian Federation bIUF- SK Slovakia -IUFO SI Slovenia --uf- TJ Tajikistan --U-- TM Turkmenistan -iUF- UA Ukraine --UF- UZ Uzbekistan ---f- YU Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of) BITNET Col. 2 (Entities with international BITNET links.) b: minimal, one to five domestic BITNET sites, 19 entities B: widespread, more than five domestic BITNET sites, 32 entities IP INTERNET Col. 3 (Entities with international IP Internet links.) I: = operational, accesible from entire IP Internet, 57 entities i: = operational, not accesible via the NSFNET backbone, 2 entities UUCP Col. 4 (Entities with domestic UUCP sites which are connected to the Global Multiprotocol Open Internet.) u: minimal, one to five domestic UUCP sites, 53 entities U: widespread, more than five domestic UUCP sites, 64 entities FIDONET Col. 5 (Entities with domestic FIDONET sites which are connected to the Global Multiprotocol Open Internet) f: minimal, one to five domestic FIDONET sites, 25 entities F: widespread, more than five domestic FIDONET sites, 59 entities OSI Col. 6 (Entities with international X.400 links to domestic sites which are connected to the Global Multiprotocol Open Internet). o: minimal, one to five domestic X.400 sites, 8 entities O: widespread, more than five domestic X.400 sites, 23 entities NOTE: ISO 3166 country codes are included in the Table for each entity. Note that these do not always agree with the top level DNS code(s) used for a particular country. [In particular, for countries of the former Soviet Union--see discussion in paper.] Copyright 1993 Lawrence H. Landweber and the Internet Society. (Unlimited permission to copy or use is hereby granted subject to inclusion of this copyright notice.) from: INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY (Version 9-August 1, 1993) Connectivity "borders," like national ones (or at least like national borders in the ex-USSR), can be fuzzy. For example, the table indicates that networks with real Internet connectivity exist in Russia. Some of these networks (based in Russia) are accessible by dial-up to local packet switches in other countries, so effectively one can have Internet access there too. For example, one can dial into Sprint's X.25 packet switch in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, login to GlasNet (based in Moscow) and telnet to the Library of Congress. Effectively, one thus can have real Internet access in Kazakhstan, but this is not reflected in the map. While each country has an assigned ISO code, not all of them are actually being used in practice. In extensive travels and electronic correspondence in the FSU, the authors have never seen an e-mail address which contained one of the domains "AM" (Armenia), "AZ" (Azerbaijan), "KK" (Kazakhstan), "KZ" (Kyrgizstan), "MD" (Moldova), "TJ" (Tajikistan), "TM" (Turkmenistan), "UZ" (Uzbekistan) or even "RU" (Russia). E-mail addresses on hosts in all of these countries still fall under the domain "SU" (Soviet Union). Network hosts in Ukraine and Belarus' have begun using their assigned domains (UA and BY, respectively), but routers on most other Internet computers tend not to recognize them and messages bounce back to sender "host unknown." Therefore if one wants to send to an address "user@host.ua", one must instead send via a relay, rewriting the address thus: "user%host.ua@relay.ussr.eu.net" or "user%host.ua@kiae.su" or "user%host.ua@hq.demos.su". The country codes for the Baltic states ("EE," Estonia; "LV," Latvia; "LT," Lithuania) are somewhat more established, although occasionally some people still find their messages to these domains rejected. A simple solution to this problem is to route messages through SUNet in Sweden thus: "user@host.lv" rewritten as "user%host.lv@sunic.sunet.se". Mail to the Baltic domains routed via the USSR relay will probably reach its destination. Connectivity Country-by-Country Computer networks in Eurasia began to develop in the Soviet era and therefore any description of connectivity developments most logically begins at the center, in what is now Russia. With the exception of the Baltic states and, increasingly, Ukraine, computer network infrastructure in the former Soviet States is still highly centralized, and most international connections still run through Moscow. * Institute for Automated Systems Before actual e-mail service providers appeared on the scene, the Institute for Automated Systems (IAS, or in Russian "VNIIPAS," located in Moscow) created an X.25 packet switch data network. X.25 networks are spider-webs of interconnected telephone lines, modems, and computers across the world which serve as a kind of general-use information highway, connecting a diverse collection of end users, networks, and databases. If one has access to an X.25 network (meaning that one is a registered, paying user of a commercial X.25 provider), then one can access any other network or resource that is connected via X.25 elsewhere in the world. For example, since Bill Fick is a registered user on the IAS X.25 network, he can dial into the IAS X.25 PAD in Baku and use it to login to his account on Sovam teleport in California or his GlasNet account in Moscow, both of which have X.25 connections and identification numbers. Originally, the main mission of the IAS network was to connect various institutions across the then-Soviet Union to online databases and the like at several research institutes in or near Moscow. In principle, IAS continues to provide access to these resources today, for example, databases in the Russian State Library (the former Lenin Library), the Library of the Institute for Information in the Social Sciences (in Russian, "INION"), etc. (Klotzbucher) However, in reality the authors have never heard of Western scholars actually using these databases remotely, and it is unclear if the databases themselves contain any useful information. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many of the dedicated channels (usually leased telephone lines) between IAS and the institutions housing these databases now sit idle. IAS also operates its own e-mail system accessible through the X.25 network, but its user base is small. For the most part, IASnet is simply a set of electronic "roads" which can be used to access remote networks and online resources. Several other X.25 packet switch networks now exist in the ex-USSR as well, the largest being that created by Sprint and the Russian Ministry of Communications. Like IASnet, Sprint also has its own e-mail system, although the steep hard currency prices put it out of reach for most indigenous users. (For a list of IASnet and Sprint X.25 dialup numbers, see appendices one and two.) * Relcom/Demos These two networks began in 1990 out of the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy and together today make up the largest and fastest growing e-mail provider in the former Soviet Union, connecting tens of thousands of end-users in cities across Eurasia. Formerly one single network, a schism of sorts developed in 1992, although as a practical matter the two networks provide very similar and largely seamless service. Relcom or Demos nodes can be found in nearly every city of consequence in Eurasia, and both networks now have their own leased-line connection to the Internet in the West. A local network node is usually rather simple: a 386 or 486 IBM compatible computer running UNIX with significant disk space, several in-dial modems, and a high speed modem on a good quality phone line to Moscow. Each local network node is a quasi- independent entity which offers UUCP offline e-mail services to users and connects periodically with Relcom or Demos headquarters in Moscow for further batch routing of mail to other Relcom or Demos nodes or to the Internet in the West. In some cities, competing nodes have driven prices down and service up. Some nodes have even secured leased line connections with Relcom or Demos hosts in Moscow, which allows those nodes to provide real TCP/IP Internet services to end-users by both dial-up and leased lines, albeit with rather limited bandwidth and data speeds. These developments are rather recent and Relcom and Demos have yet to market new online Internet services, but these developments suggest that these two networks aspire to create a true TCP/IP backbone in the ex-USSR. * SUEARN "SUEARN" stands for "Soviet Union EARN" (EARN is the European equivalent to Bitnet), and is an attempt to develop a Bitnet-type academic research network in the FSU from a base in the Institute for Organic Chemistry. For various political and technical reasons, the network has not expanded as rapidly as hoped, although it provides TCP/IP connections among a number of institutes in Moscow and dialup UUCP mail services similar to Relcom's. * GlasNet GlasNet is a two-year old network designed primarily to provide low-cost e-mail services to individuals and the emerging non- profit community in the ex-USSR. It is a member of the global "Association for Progressive Communications" and is a sister network of PeaceNet and EcoNet, based at the Institute for Global Communications in San Francisco. In comparison to Relcom, GlasNet resembles a small BBS, serving only about 1000 users. While it is accessible by X.25 packet switch dialup in a number of cities, it really isn't a "network" per se as it is comprised of just one host system in Moscow. However, it serves an important function by providing a low-cost dial-up alternative for those who cannot access or afford other network service providers. In late summer of 1993, GlasNet obtained live access to the Internet through a satellite channel for use by all Russian networks donated by the Soros International Science Foundation. As it uses an online interactive interface, users can now use telnet and enjoy access to other internet functions as well. * Sovam Teleport A Russian-American-British joint venture formerly known as San Francisco-Moscow Teleport (SFMT), Sovam was the first officially sanctioned e-mail provider in the then-Soviet Union, and for several years, the only publicly available network. It was also fairly pricey, and catered primarily to a Moscow clientele. Sovam is based on two host computers, one in Moscow and one in San Francisco, which are linked via satellite and accessible via X.25 packet switch dialups. Sovam uses an online interface similar to GlasNet's and provides basic e-mail services and access to other Internet tools. *Summary The above list is far from comprehensive, of course. Myriad Western networks are now accessible via X.25 dialup, and countless "fidonets" (which are somewhat primitive "bulletin boards") provide gateways to the larger networked world exist on the basis of small BBS systems in cities across Eurasia. All of the networks listed above work on a fee-for-service basis, and while relative prices vary, ANY cost can be prohibitive for cash-strapped educational institutions. Commodities traders, bankers, and other commercial constituencies can usually afford the services of existing e-mail providers, and these groups make up the bulk of the tens of thousands of existing network users in the former Soviet Union. To verify this, one need only look at the topics discussed by the many "Relcom newsgroups" (discussed below). "Relcom.commerce.stocks" and "relcom.postf.business" are typical. In the US, the federal government subsidized Bitnet and NSFnet to defray start-up infrastructure costs, and commercial network services provide a relatively new and inexpensive alternative. The Russian government has addressed cost problems by funding an initiative called RELARN (Russian Electronic Academic Research Network), an association of scholarly and other non-profit network users which subsidizes electronic mail access for academic institutions and civic groups using funds from the Russian Federation Budget. In principle, this subsidy may be applied to an e-mail account on any network that charges fees in rubles, but RELARN has not yet received much of the money promised to it by the Ministry of the Science and is thus working in debt to the service providers, chiefly Relcom. Still, RELARN is making possible substantially wider network use in academia, and eventually it may provide an organizational basis for a real non-commercial network backbone in Russia. RELARN has been a chief organizing agent for the Soros International Science Foundation network initiatives in Russia. ISF is sponsoring the construction of a 40 kilometer fiber-optic backbone devised by RELARN which will connect major institutes and network service providers in Moscow, and has pledged to support a satellite channel to the Internet accessible to all Moscow networks for a period of two years. While this channel has been a godsend to GlasNet, which was choking on international data transmission costs, Relcom and Demos have reacted skeptically, since they view Sprint, which is housing the ISF link, as a potential competitor and they see little utility in using a free link which may disappear in two years when they have links of their own already. In addition to these activities, the Russian Federation State Committee on Higher Education has established scores of Centers of New Information Technology (CNIT) in educational institutions across Russia. The concrete activities of each center vary widely from projects in library automation, multimedia and video, to concentrated networking projects. CNIT in Novosibirsk, for example, has established a leased line TCP/IP (or Internet) connection via a local Relcom node and is slowly but surely wiring the University in a WAN (wide-area network) which aspires eventually to provide wide access to a full range of Internet services. * Unique circumstances of Baltics The Baltic states enjoy the most advanced network infrastructure among FSU states. With financial and organization assistance from Scandinavian governments, research communities in each country have created the backbone of a real Baltic academic network which links major academic institutions in each country with each other, and in turn, the Internet. The small size and intensity of network assistance to the Baltics have created inefficiencies and competing constituencies in each country and has particularly retarded network development in Lithuania. (See appendix four.) * Ukraine Ukrainian networking is somewhat behind Russian among educational institutions due to lack of equipment, funds, and expertise, although the overall landscape is similar--there are local Relcom hosts, some with TCP/IP connections via Moscow, a local GlasNet host, X.25 access to Sovam teleport and other networks, etc. Several nodes have plans in the works to get international connectivity via leased lines to Lv'iv and Warsaw to end dependence on Relcom/Moscow, and ISF also has a tentative plan to support development of a TCP/IP backbone in Ukraine. Special connectivity issues for scholars in humanities and social sciences. The growth of network infrastructure by itself, of course, means little for the scholarly community if nobody uses it. Great strides have been made toward expanding physical access to networked computers and mitigating costs for scholars in Eurasia, but in practice many obstacles remain to truly vibrant and free electronic interaction, particularly among those in humanities and social science disciplines. Researchers in the natural sciences, mathematics, and technical disciplines have taken to network technology rapidly, since the general level of computer literacy and access is high. These disciplines dominated the first wave of network use in the West, and network development in the former USSR is following a similar pattern. Computers are only beginning to infiltrate the humanities. Other barriers to network use are more subtle. Electronic mail has existed in some higher educational institutions in Moscow and St. Petersburg for several years already, but administrators are often loathe to permit widespread access to such powerful communication media particularly among junior scholars. The notion that a young researcher can carry on a dialogue with foreign colleagues without the knowledge or intercession of his or her superiors still generates a reflexive negative reaction among those long accustomed to exclusive control over such contacts. Even easy, uninhibited access to e-mail does not ensure immediate growth of vibrant communication. For nearly one year, IREX has been administering a "Modems for Democracy" project which provides computer modems, e-mail accounts, and training for non- commercial civic organizations. This project has proven much more labor intensive than anticipated because recipient groups often find that they don't immediately have others with whom they want to communicate, and seem reticent to experiment or find creative uses for the network. They gain access to a powerful communications medium which they are not adequately prepared to exploit. Experience shows that once a modem is in the field, lively correspondence often requires active intervention to develop. This means special, individualized attention from a person who can play the role of intermediary to find correspondents and facilitate the growth of collegial interaction on the net. IREX's initial work in scholarly communities has yielded similar results. Even when the idea of rapid and cheap international communication is exciting for a scholar in principle, after he or she learns to use the network and secures a point of access the real challenges arise: what to read? With whom to communicate? The Internet is difficult to navigate. There are no comprehensive, annotated lists of scholars online and their addresses, to say nothing of indices to online information resources. Much of the information on the net is of very marginal quality, of little use for serious scholars. Yet there are few reliable mechanisms to separate the good from the bad. Allan Urbanic's paper describes some Internet search tools which have made it infinitely easier to find materials on the network. Still, it is mostly hit or miss, and given the sheer number of information resources online, a random search for information is bound to be quixotic, not to mention discouraging for a novice user in the FSU. Related to these problems is one of language. English has become the de facto lingua franca of the Internet, and thus the Internet is a much more friendly and useful work environment for scholars who can at least read it. There are, of course, myriad network resources of value to non-English readers, and individual e-mail correspondence theoretically can be exchanged in any language. In communication with scholars from Eurasia, however, problems arise when one wants to send correspondence using the Cyrillic character set. Most networks on the Internet transfer characters using a 7-data bit standard, while transmission of Cyrillic requires an 8th bit. Networks in the FSU use 8-bit transmission, so Cyrillic messages may be exchanged freely between them. Overseas Cyrillic correspondence, however, requires either transliteration or some other type of encoding as an intermediate step. The procedure is relatively simple, but it requires careful explanation and creates yet another source of inertia inhibiting the development of vibrant communication, particularly among new network users. (For a brief technical explanation of the problem and various encoding techniques to solve it, see appendix six.) * Solutions All of these problems point to the need for extensive user training and support, functions which network service providers would ideally serve, since creating masses of new and active users is in their economic self-interest. However, in the FSU nearly all of the network organizations neglect training and support activities. Academic institutions themselves have been similarly passive in expanding network use in the humanities, with the exception of the CNIT groups in a few cities such as Novosibirsk. The task of network "evangelism" and training in humanities and social science constituencies has thus been left to private, outside initiatives. An independent Russian organization, the international "Vega" laboratory, has been working since 1985 to address problems of access and training within Academy of Science institutes and university faculties in Moscow. Supported by IREX and the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Vega has established "public access" e-mail centers in several humanities and social science institutes. Scholars can send and receive messages free of charge from these facilities with the help of Vega's user support and technical staff. In tandem with public access initiatives, Vega works individually with scholars to help them to gain direct access within their home institutions, departments, and offices. Vega's activity began as a joint psychological research project on the process of communication between Michael Cole of the University of California at San Diego and Aleksandra Vladimirovna Belyaeva of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The psychological research agenda remains, which can sometimes create problematic issues of privacy for users of the public access stations. Nonetheless, Vega was the first and is still one of the most active network training organizations in existence. The State Historical Public Library received its e-mail account as part of this program. Drawing on Vega's experience and its own unique combination of contacts, alumni, and resources, IREX has created an experimental program of "Fellowships in Communications Assistance" to promote computer communications among scholars and civic groups across the Eurasian land mass. With support from the Carnegie Corporation and the Eurasia Foundation, IREX is presently placing four American network training volunteers, one each in Novosibirsk, Kazan', the Far East, and Kiev. Each fellow will be responsible for creating one or more public access sites, and more generally will train local trainers and assist scholars to use resources on the Internet and establish contact with colleagues both within the former Soviet Union and from the West. At the time of writing this paper, two fellows have already been placed: Bryce Rich in Novosibirsk (bryce@locutus.cnit.nsk.su), and John Velat in Kazan' (jlvelat@glas.apc.or). IREX's Moscow and Washington, D.C. offices will track, coordinate, and support fellows in the field, responding to queries and developing common resource guides and annotated e- mail address lists to meet typical information needs. IREX and Vega also have jointly developed "IREXnet", a group of over 220 American alumni of IREX grants, scholars who use e-mail already and have volunteered to serve as human "routers" or "postmaster" to help their FSU colleagues to find correspondents and information resources on the net. Over time, IREX will also develop disciplinary discussion groups (something like a LISTSERV or e-mail reflector address) for FSU scholars and their colleagues in other countries as an attempt to bring FSU scholars into "virtual communities" on the net. For more information, or to volunteer as a postmaster, write to Bob Henry or Tony Byrne at irexnet@gwuvm.gwu.edu. * Indigenous "Online" or E-mail Accessible Resources To date, there is a dearth of indigenous FSU scholarly data and information resources online and accessible via the Internet or e-mail commands. Relcom maintains an extensive array of commercial newsgroups, which can be fascinating and useful for economists or others studying contemporary Russian business phenomena. For broader scholarly interest, however, really only one catch-all newsgroup called relcom.relarn.general holds much promise. In the West it is possible to read Relcom newsgroups by telnetting to "ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu", selecting the menu item for "NEWS & FTP", and moving through the menu structure to the desired newsgroup, and from there, to specific messages. Relcom newsgroups are also archived in an ftp site maintained by Jan Labanowski. The address is "kekule.osc.edu" and the messages are archived in the /pub/russian/relcom/news sub-directory. Messages in both cases are in Koi-8 (the technical aspects of converting Koi-8 to a readable format, either in transliterated Cyrillic or in Cyrillic, are discussed in appendix six). The "kekule" ftp site has execute files (programs) that will assist in reading Relcom newsgroups as well as information (text files) about how to use the execute files. The file "relcom.help" is located in the directory "/pub/russian/relcom/doc" and explains how to receive relcom news from specific newsgroups via e-mail. The archive owner can be contacted at: jkl@kekule.osc.edu. (Labanowski, electronic sources) Local online library catalogs, databases, gophers, etc. will doubtless develop quickly with the infrastructure, particularly in the Baltics. Tracking these developments and compiling annotated lists as they appear will help all online Slavic scholars tremendously. E-mail Accessible Resources in the West There are several tools available that allow users with only e- mail capabilities to access many kinds of resources that are generally only accessible via the Internet (as we have seen, this is generally the case in most of the former Soviet Union). Among these are the ability to emulate a WAIS (Wide Area Information Server) or Archie session. Trickle and BITFTP allow e-mail to emulate FTP, while other techniques make it possible to emulate other "real time" tools. The methods for using these tools via e-mail are described in detail the _Guide to Network Resource Tools_. (The EARN Association, electronic sources) "Gopher" servers provide access to a wide variety of resources (as described in Allan Urbanic's paper) and are of course accessible via telnet and not via e-mail. One feature that they have, however, is that they will generally allow text files that they contain to be e-mailed to the user (or to any other valid Internet address). Some of these files can be quite large, and it should be noted that care should be taken in mailing large files to addresses in the former Soviet Union, since there may be either various reasons why an e-mail user there may wish to avoid receiving such files. Most significantly, there may be charges to a user in the FSU per kilobyte received. One example of a gopher is the Library of Congress MARVEL (Machine Assisted Realization of the Virtual Electronic Library) which contains (among many other things) the _International Directory of Librarians and Library Specialist in the Slavic and East European Field_ (4th ed.) (Kraus, electronic sources) This file is quite large, yet can be sent by the gopher via e-mail. Once received, it can be downloaded and printed locally. This should facilitate issuing updates to the directory and obviously removes the cost of printing it from the host institution. E-mail and LISTSERV (and Similar Technologies) LISTSERV is a program that systematically distributes e-mail messages to "subscribers." The details of how to operate LISTSERV are beyond the scope of this paper and are widely available. Generally LISTSERV is thought of as nothing more than a distribution system for e-mail messages, which facilitates both "discussion groups" and the distribution of "electronic journals." (Electronic journals are the subject of another paper to be presented by George Klim and will not be treated here.) LISTSERV does have additional capabilities beyond distributing e- mail. Most LISTSERVs archive the messages that are sent, and these archives can be searched and past messages retrieved. Files other than archived messages can also be stored in the LISTSERV and retrieved by e-mail commands. Another capability, although seldom used, is for "automatic file distribution," or AFD. This allows a LISTSERV participant to select certain files that they will receive updates of when new versions are posted to the LISTSERV. All these functions are manipulated by commands sent in e-mail messages. The _Guide to Network Resource Tools_ provides an in-depth look at the command structure and workings of LISTSERV. (The EARN Association, electronic sources) The E-EUROPE list is an example of an LISTSERV that implements all of these features. It is not a "pure" discussion list, rather participants can send messages to the LISTSERV address and the list "owner," James Reese, periodically posts groups of messages that are then sent to the E-EUROPE subscribers. The list has all its messages archived, and they can be searched and retrieved. There are also about a dozen files that are archived which are periodically updated and can be retrieved. Finally, the list owner distributes some files on AFD concerning specific countries (thus one participant can regularly receive files on Russia while another receives files on Hungary, as they choose). It is also possible to receive the regular updates to the index of files maintained on the LISTSERV on AFD. (Reese, electronic sources) A new LISTSERV that has been established that also may be of interest is the "IPRUSSIA" list, which is a "place for people to share their ideas, experiences, questions, answers, plans, and progress relative to implementing the Internet in Russia." (Graham, electronic sources) A less sophisticated alternative (from a technical standpoint) are "lists" that can be maintained in association with an individual e-mail account (sometimes referred to as an "e-mail reflector"). One example of such a list is "Balt-Info," which distributes e-mail messages to participants, who are united by an interest in Baltic studies. This list is interesting for several reasons. The funding for establishing Balt-Info was provided by an IREX grant, with much of the funding going towards providing training for the Baltic participants. Another distinguishing characteristic of Balt-Info is that so many of the active participants are, in fact, in the former Soviet Union. While in theory e-mail should be greatly increasing communications between the FSU and the West, in fact this is not seen in LISTSERVs or on many lists. The Slavic Librarians E-mail Forum LISTSERV, for example, still has only a modest number of members from the FSU and their participation is minimal. It is difficult to pinpoint the reason (or reasons), which is probably a combination of the language barrier and that many issues that are of concern to the Western participants are not of interest to the FSU participants. Cost of using e-mail may also be a factor. However libraries have mentioned some interest in using e-mail to save money on postage. The State Public Scientific Technical Library (in Russian, "GPNTB") in Novosibirsk reports it wants to begin sending exchange list offers to American libraries via e- mail, for example. (In Mike Neubert's recent travels through the Urals and Siberia, he found that a number of oblast and university libraries had e-mail, but upon return his experience has been that only about one in three are responding to messages- -thus it is not clear if some of these newly-connected institutions are even reading their mail.) * LISTSERV Directories There are enough different LISTSERV-distributed discussion groups and electronic journals that it is necessary to have directories to find those that might be of interest. These directories are generally of two types. The first contains the directories that attempt to comprehensively describe all existing lists. The best such directory of electronic journals is the _Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters, and Scholarly Discussion Lists_, which can be retrieved (appropriately) by e- mail. (Strangelove, electronic sources) The best directory of academic LISTSERV discussion groups is the _Directory of Scholarly Electronic Conferences_ (Kovacs, electronic sources), which is so large that it is divided into seven parts, with each part covering a number of disciplines (i.e., part 2 covers geography and library and information science). It also has a system of more narrow subject access. In addition, it is possible to access the Kovacs list by gopher, such as the LC MARVEL, and search it for lists associated with various subject terms or keywords. For example a search for the term "russia" returned six lists (the search also looked for matches in the annotations). It should be noted that the entries are not always up to date--the entry for the "RUSSIA" list shows an incorrect address for both the LISTSERV and the list owner. There are several published "list of lists," one being the _Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists_ (3rd ed.), which is based on the online Kovacs and Strangelove lists, another is Internet: Mailing Lists, which has been independently produced. (Association of Research Libraries, and Hardie) Hardie's list is well-indexed and contains extensive annotations, but the quickly changing nature of the "list" environment would seem to indicate that electronic versions are more likely to be up to date. The second type of list is created with a particular group in mind. Typical of such lists is the article "Internet for Russian and East European Studies," which includes an annotated guide to lists that might most directly concern an area studies specialist. (Markiw) Another recent article, "From Russia, with Love: Unique Sources of Electronic Information on the Commonwealth of Independent States" also includes an annotated list of lists, but with more of a business focus. (Schoenbrun) Lists of this type are also available electronically, the best example being the _Mother of All Eastern European Lists: Eastern-European List of Electronic (Computer-Accessible) Resources_, which takes a broader view of the possible interests of an area studies scholar with dozens of lists included. (Pasek, electronic sources) Of a similar type to _Mother of All_ is a directory of language-oriented lists, _The List of Language Lists_, available via anonymous FTP. (Everson, electronic sources) Finding User Addresses on the Internet One of the most pressing problems for the new user of e-mail can be finding addresses of persons with whom he or she wishes to communicate. There are several types of servers that can be accessed either via telnet or via e-mail commands to find addresses. The Guide to Network Resource Tools (The EARN Association, electronic sources) and The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog (Krol) as well as other Internet "user manuals" describe how to use these somewhat complex tools (such as Whois, Netfind, and X.500). It is possible to use many of these tools via a gopher, such as the LC MARVEL (under the menu choice "Internet Guides and Informations Services/Intnernet Mail Directories and Searching Tools"). Note that authorities on e- mail still suggest that in most cases, though, the "easiest and best way of acquiring these addresses is via information sent directly to you, be it a business card, a phone call, a postal letter, an e-mail message, or a news group posting." (Krol) In the United States more published directories that are being published include e-mail addresses. The next edition of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies membership directory will presumably contain far more e-mail addresses than the previous one, in which less than 10% of the members had addresses listed. The _International Directory of Librarians and Library Specialist in the Slavic and East European Field_ (4th ed.) that is available from the LC MARVEL gopher (described above) is another example of a directory that now includes far more e-mail addresses. So far, however, many standard reference sources with the widest scope have resisted adding even the "postmaster" address for institutions (i.e., an address for the e-mail administrator at an institution). One conspicuous example is _The World of Learning_, which is a main source used by reference librarians and others to locate phone numbers and addresses for universities, libraries, archives, and similar institutions worldwide. The 1993 edition once again failed to include any e-mail information (note that it also fails to include fax numbers). While electronic tools are useful for finding addresses in the United States and to some extent in Western Europe, they are not effective in the former Soviet Union. And the advice regarding phone calls, etc, can be rather slow and/or expensive for that part of the world. Therefore it makes more sense to explore other possibilities. There are several e-mail address directories available in electronic form for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Generally these supply the address of the postmaster or a similar figure at the named institution. It is necessary to send that person a message inquiring as to the address of a particular individual. There are a number of such directories available in electronic format. Two such lists are on the "gopher-like" server that is maintained by Wayne Chinander at "ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu". This server will mail documents viewed to any valid Internet address. It is wise to access the online help before attempting this, since this server operates differently than a typical gopher server (Chinander, electronic sources). Other e-mail directories are maintained as files on the LISTSERV "E-Europe" which is maintained by James Reese. (see Reese, electronic sources) It is necessary to be a subscriber to the LISTSERV first. The addresses tend, however, not to be of institutions in the humanities and the social sciences but of ones in the hard sciences--or business concerns. Another source is a printed directory. According to a message distributed on a number of LISTSERVs, the CDC Clearinghouse has published a directory _CDC E-mail Listing_ that contains over 7,000 e-mail addresses for the former Soviet Union. It is available only in print form. (CDC Clearinghouse.) Unfortunately it appears that much of the information in this directory is dated. Another technique to employ in difficult cases is to send an inquiry to a LISTSERV asking if anyone has information about the needed address. By choosing carefully which LISTSERV to send such a message to, it can be almost guaranteed that someone will know the address and reply with the needed information--if not of the individual, then the address of someone at the institution. With the address of someone at the institution it is possible to send a message to "postmaster@the.correct.domain" asking about the e-mail address of the relevant person. In fact, it is much more likely that too many replies will be received--therefore, as soon as an answer arrives it is wise to send another message to the LISTSERV so that one's inbox is not flooded. Also, it is generally accepted courtesy to respond with a thank you--Mike Neubert sent a request for advice on an address in Slovakia to an appropriate LISTSERV that generated fourteen responses before the next time he checked his e-mail. Networkers are a helpful group, it seems. Conclusion This paper has attempted to describe many different aspects of e- mail usage by area studies scholars interested in the former Soviet Union. At present, there are numerous aspects of this subject that are more "technical" than perhaps some would care to become involved with, but over time this will change. Capabilities will improve, while at the same time the level of expertise required by the end-user should decrease, as better "tools" (programs) become available. This constant evolution means that the content of this paper will reflect reality for only a very short time (if it even does now). Users with the greatest interest in the changes can subscribe to lists such as "IPRUSSIA" (discussed above) to stay abreast of some of these developments, but the most important technique is to simply continually make use of the many resources available on the Internet. Sources (In Print) _CDC E-mail Listing_. CDC Clearinghouse. (Not available for inspection.) Apparently published in 1993, and can be ordered for $27.50 from: Citizens' Democracy Corp, 2021 K Street NW, Suite 215, Washington, DC, 20006. _Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists_ (3rd ed.). Association of Research Libraries. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries, 1993. Estrada, Susan. _Connecting to the Internet_. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. 1993. Frey, Donnalyn and Rick Adams. _@#!%: A Directory of Electronic Mail Addressing and Networks_ (3rd ed). Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc, 1993. Hardie, Edward T.L. and Vivian Neou. _Internet: Mailing Lists_. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PTR Prentice Hall, 1993. Krol, Ed. _The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog_. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc, 1992. Markiw, Michael. "Internet for Russian and East European Studies." _College & Research Library News_. September, 1993 (vol. 54, no. 8). pp. 444-448. Schoenbrun, Cynthia. "From Russia, with Love: Unique Sources of Electronic Information on the Commonwealth of Independent States." _Database_. August, 1993 (vol. 16, no. 4). pp. 17-23. Sources (Electronic) Note that locations given for documents available via electronic means are not necessarily the only existing locations. _BALT-INFO_. A network linking librarians and researchers interested in the Baltic states both there and in the West. Contact Dawn Mann at "MANND@RFERL.ORG". Chinander, Wayne. "Ex-USSR Server." Telnet to "UKANAIX.CC.UKANS.EDU" and login as "ex-ussr", then follow the menu-driven instructions. (This is a "gopher-like" server that includes the ability to transmit via e-mail text files maintained there. Files include some Relcom newsgroups (under the menu choice "NEWS & FTP), two different e-mail directories (under the menu choices E-MAIL and E-MAIL2), and the _Mother of All Eastern European Lists_ (which is described below, under "Pasek" and is located here under the menu choice "LISTS"). The "NEWS & FTP" menu choice also includes files stored on an ftp site at "CS " which are available for browsing covering a variety of topics associated with e-mail in the FSU. Comrie, Bernard and Michael Everson. _Computer Bulletin Boards for Individual Languages, or, The List of Language Lists_. (version 1.3). October 12, 1993. Available via anonymous FTP from "IRLEARN.UCD.IE" in the directory "/everson." Crepin-Leblond, Olivier M.J. _Mail/Country Codes: Based on International Standard ISO 3166 Names_ (Release: 93.10.1) Available from "LISTSERV@CC1.KULEUVEN.AC.BE". Send the command "GET FAQ mail/country-codes". The EARN Association. _Guide to Network Resource Tools_. Document number 2.0, September 15, 1993. Available from "LISTSERV@EARNCC.CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU". Send the command "GET filename", where filename is either "nettools ps" (for the postscript version) or "nettools memo" (for the plain text version). Gaffin, Adam and Joerg Heitkoetter. _Big Dummy's Guide to the Internet: A Round Trip through Global Networks, Life in Cyberspace, and Everything_. Available via anonymous FTP from "FTP.EFF.ORG" in the directory "/pub/EFF/papers" as file "big- dummys-guide.txt." Graham, Mark. _IPRUSSIA List_. To subscribe to this list, send a message to "LISTSERV@SOVAM.COM" and in the body of the message (not the subject line) enter "SUBSCRIBE IPRUSSIA yourfirstname yourlastname". Kaminski, Peter. _The Public Dialup Internet Access List (PDIAL)_ (version PDIAL013.TXT--as of July 23, 1993). To retrieve this file, send the message "SEND PDIAL" to "INFO-DELI- SERVER@NETCOM.COM". To be put in a list of persons who receive future editions as they are published, send the message "SUBSCRIBE PDIAL" to "INFO-DELI-SERVER@NETCOM.COM". Kovacs, Diane K. _Directory of Scholary Electronic Conferences_ (7th revision). Available from "LISTSERV@KENTVM.KENT.EDU." For information about retrieving this multi-part file, send the message "GET ACADLIST README" to that address. Also available for searching via gopher (telnet to "MARVEL.LOC.GOV" and login as "MARVEL", then select "Internet Resources/Internet Guides on Information Services" and select "Searchable List of Lists.") Kraus, David H. _International Directory of Librarians and Library Specialist in the Slavic and East European Field_ (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1993. Available via e-mail by telnetting to the gopher at "MARVEL.LOC.GOV" (login as "MARVEL") and following the menu choices (Research & Reference/Reading Rooms/European/Directories) to "Directory of Slavic Librarians." Labanowski, Jan. Various E-Mail related files. Available via anonymous FTP from "KEKULE.OSC.EDU". The directory "/pub/russian/relcom" has software for reading Relcom newsgroups stored in the subdirectory "software", has some newsgroups archived in the subdirectory "news", and has various textfiles about reading Relcom newsgroups as well as the article by Presser (see below) in the subdirectory "doc". Landweber, Lawrence. _International Connectivity_ (version 9, August 1, 1993). Available via anonymous FTP from "FTP.CS.WISC.EDU" in the directory "connectivity_table". (Earlier versions of the table are also archived there as well as an explanation of the changes that occured between versions.) Pasek, Zbigniew. _Mother of All Eastern European Lists: Eastern-European List of Electronic (Computer-Accessible) Resources_. (version 4.0). Available via anonymous FTP from "UKANAIX.CC.UKANS.EDU" in the directory "pub/history/Europe/general" as file "E-Europe.bib." Note that this file is also available on the file server maintained by Wayne Chinander (see above, under "Chinander"). Presser, Larry. _Relcom, An Appropriate Technology Network_. Available via anonymous FTP from "KEKULE.OCS.EDU" in the directory "/pub/russian/relcom/doc" as "relcom.history". Reese, James. Various E-Mail related files. To access these files, must be a LISTSERV subscriber. Send message "SUBSCRIBE E- EUROPE yourfirstname yourlastname" to "LISTSERV@PUCC.BITNET". Then send to the same address the message "GET E-EUROPE filename" where "FILE01" is a document describing E-Mail in the (former) Soviet Union. "FILE02" is a directory of E-Mail nodes in the former Soviet Union, alphabetized by company/organization and giving contact person and street/city. (part 1 of 2) "FILE03" is part 2 of this directory. "FILE04" is a directory of E-Mail nodes in Bulgaria, Czechoslavoakia, Hungray, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Yugoslavia alphabetized by company/organization and giving contact person and street/city. "FILE07" is a description of GlasNet services. For background information about these files and this LISTSERV send the command "GET E-EUROPE INDEX". Strangelove, Michael. _Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters, and Scholarly Discussion Lists_. Send the message "GET EJOURNL1 DIRECTRY GET EJOURNL2 DIRECTRY" to "LISTSERV@OTTAWA.BITNET" to receive the directory (which is in two parts). Travica, Bob and Matthew Hogan. _Computer Networking in the xUSSR: Technology, Uses and Social Effects_. 1992. Available via anonymous FTP from "CS.UMD.EDU" in the directory "/pub/cyrillic" under the file name "NetworksInUSSR". Also available from the Wayne Chinander server (see above). Yanoff, Scott and John Chew. _Inter-Network Mail Guide_. Available via anonymous ftp from "csd4.csd.uwm.edu" in the directory "/pub" as the file "internetwork-mail-guide." Appendices 1-IASNet X.25 Access Numbers 2-Sprint Nodes Rotary Numbers 4-Preliminary Needs Assessment Report for BALT*INFO Project 5-Using E-mail in the Former Soviet Union and the Baltics (A Guide for IREX Scholars) 6-Cyrillic Character Encoding Methods NOTE: Appendix 3, Centers of New Information Technology (CNIT), has not been included in this electronic version of this paper. Appendix 1 IASNet X.25 Access Numbers City Code Admin Sovam Support Modem number ----------------------------------------------------------------- Moscow 095 229-1118 947-5586 932-6765 Baku 8922 66-3995 66-4689 66-0079 Kazan 8432 54-3200 74-3430 76-3688 76-3272 Kiev 044 296-4238 296-4247 296-4292 296-4283 Minsk 0172 26-4560 26-4560 20-7674 Riga 0132 55-1133 55-1133 36-3041 St. Petersburg 812 311-7129 311-8412 311-0365 Ufa 3472 22-5500 22-4827 52-8647 Vladivostok 4232 25-2731 25-2598 25-4633 25-3455 25-9711 Yerevan 8852 28-5082 28-2951 28-4230 II Quarter '93 anticipates adding Alma-Ata, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Petrozavodsk Appendix 2 Sprint Nodes Rotary Numbers July 14, 1993 ======================================================= Location Republic Dial Access (rotary) HELP DESK (City) country/ Local Local area code Number Number ======================================================= Angarsk Russia (218)^ 9-4821 6-6401 (7-39518)^^ 9-4821 6-6401 Barnaul Russia (7-3852) 26-1601 24-1545 Bratsk Russia (23) ^ 42-0620 42-6869 (7-3953)^^ 42-0620 42-6869 Chita Russia (7-30222) 6-8853 3-3410 Ekaterinburg Russia (7-3432) 51-9945 41-4368 Irkutsk Russia (7-3952) 33-6116 43-3496 !!!33-3464 Khabarovsk Russia (7-4212) 21-4937 21-8799 Komsomolsk na Amure Russia (42172) * 3-6504 3-0249 Krasnoyarsk Russia (7-3912) 21-0529 21-9758 Moscow Russia (7-095) 928-0985 201-9285 Neftekamsk Russia (7-34713) 5-7301 5-6509 Nakhodka Russia (7-42366) 4-2710 4-4772 Novorossijsk Russia (7-86134) ** 9-1800 6-4380 ** 9-1801 Novosibirsk Russia (7-3832) 29-8861 22-7006 Omsk Russia (7-3812) **25-4396 24-1226 **25-6506 Perm Russia (7-3422) 65-9636 48-8341 Rostov Russia (7-8632) 69-6911 34-4722 Samara Russia (7-8462) 33-0021 33-2690 South Sakhalinsk Russia (7-42400) 2-9091 2-2399 S.Peterburg Russia (7-812) 110-7792 265-0571 Tomsk Russia (7-3822) 21-1556 26-6808 Tumen Russia (7-3452) 25-1910 26-8522 Ust-Ilimsk Russia (235)^ 5-7365 5-3918 (7-39535)^^ 5-7365 5-3918 Vladivostok Russia (7-4232) 22-3310 22-5750 Volgograd Russia (7-8442) 32-9965 32-8366 Ishimbaj Russia/ Bashkiria (7-34794) ** 3-3708 ! 52-9890 ** 3-3654 Meleuz Russia/ Bashkiria (7-34764) ** 4-0008 ! 52-9890 2-0424 Neftekamsk Russia/ Bashkiria (7-34713) 5-7301 ! 52-9890 Oktyabrskij Russia/ Bashkiria (7-34767) ** 4-3831 ! 52-9890 Salavat Russia/ Bashkiria (7-34763) 2-4322 ! 52-9890 Sterlitamak Russia/ Bashkiria (7-34711) 5-5161 ! 52-9890 Ufa Russia/ Bashkiria (7-3472) 52-9410 52-9890 Yakutsk Russia/ Yakutia (7-41122) ** 6-2934 5-9345 ** 5-9320 ** 5-9377 Gomel Belorussia (7-0232) ***55-1342 55-1132 Tallinn Estonia (0142) **43-1519 42-1228 **43-1566 (7-3722)!!**43-1519 42-1228 **43-1566 Alma-Ata Kazakhstan (7-3272) 50-7000 63-8936 Riga Latvia (7-0132) 22-3817 22-5671 Kiev Ukraine (7-044) 245-0379 245-4642 Lugansk Ukraine (7-0642) 53-9010 55-1201 Odessa Ukraine (7-0482) 26-2801 21-6282 Tashkent Uzbekistan (7-3712) 49-0356 44-1952 ======================================================= Note: ^ These area codes will be used for connections from Irkutsk. ^^ These area codes will be used for connections from all other locations all over the world. * This Rotary number is not accessible all over the world. ** These individual numbers will be changed to Rotary Numbers. *** Gomel Node temporary is not in operation for political reasons. ! This HELP DESK local number is in Ufa, its area code is (7-3472) !! This are code will be used only for connections from abroad. !!! This HELP DESK number will be used for Irkutsk Region (Angarsk, Bratsk, Ust-Ilimsk, Chita) Appendix 4 Preliminary Needs Assessment Report for BALT*INFO Project submitted to the International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX) by: Eric A. Johnson Exchange & Gift Division Library of Congress Washington, DC 20540 eaj@seq1.loc.gov TEXT (as of July 1993): The rapid spread of Internet in the Baltic is being both helped and hindered by Western assistance. While there are several organizations providing the equipment and telecommunications which make Internet networking in the Baltic possible, these assistance programs are not coordinated and as a result tend to create conflicting constituencies within each Baltic nation. Because of this competition, scarce resources are not being used in the most effective way possible. The spread of Internet is most widely advanced in Estonia. Tallinn and the university town of Tartu are relatively well connected. Access to the full Internet in Lithuania is extremely limited. Vilnius has a few random connections (there is no real TCP/IP infrastructure in place) while Kaunas does not have any at all. Latvia is somewhere in between. Riga is connected to the Internet through Tallinn. Internet would be spreading more quickly if there weren't at least two competing networks in each country. Lots of smaller non-Internet electronic networks (UUCP, FIDONET, GLASNET, and various railway networks exist and provide basic email services). The Estonian network which appears to be the most promising in the long-term is run by Mr. Ants Work out of the Academy of Sciences Institute of Cybernetics (IOC). It uses a leased fiber optic line to Helsinki (80 KM away from Tallinn) as its window on the Internet. This Internet network, known as Estnet, is largely self-financing within Estonia although the Finnish Ministry of Education is picking up all telecommunications costs (for the moment) as soon as the electronic traffic leaves Tallinn and begins crossing the Baltic Sea. The Estonian university system (Tallinn Technical University, Tartu University, etc.) as well as the Academy of Sciences each pay about $10,000 a year to be a member of Estnet and receive unlimited connectivity in return. The IOC believes that member institutions should get used to paying for Internet just like their counterparts do in the West. The IOC and Estnet are also the primary participants in the BaltBone project. This project is an attempt to connect major research and academic institutions in the Baltic to a single electronic Backbone. Access to the Internet would be provided via windows at either end of the network (in Tallinn to Helsinki and in Vilnius to Warsaw through a line now under construction). The creation of BaltBone is being financed in part by a $150,000 grant from UNESCO for the purchase of necessary equipment. CoCom restrictions have recently been lifted and it is hoped that the equipment will be in place by the end of the year. The second Internet network in Estonia is run by Mr. Jaak Lippmaa and the Academy of Sciences' Institute of Physical Chemistry (KBFI). Its windows on the Internet are two satellite dishes (one each in Tallinn and Tartu) that transfer electronic traffic to Stockholm. The cost of financing this network is about double what the IOC's costs are because of the added cost of satellite traffic. All costs, for the moment, are being covered by the Soros Foundation (Mr. Lippmaa is on the Estonian board) and by the Swedish Government. As a result, being a part of this Internet network is essentially free until the end of the year (this was how I got access to the full Internet while in Estonia). What will happen by the end of the year when funding runs out, no one is really sure. But since this network controls the .ee domain, they will remain important players even after their money runs out. It is possible that they will begin charging member institutions for access to Internet in the future but that would probably mean an end to the expensive satellite connections. The problem with the conflicting networks created by uncoordinated Western funding assistance can be seen clearly in Estonia. If two institutions connected to different Estonian networks (KBFI and IOC) wish to send a message to each other across Tallinn, the message has to be sent to Stockholm and Helsinki for routing. The message cannot move across the two networks within Tallinn. Steps have been taken to correct these problems. The IOC and KBFI networks have been linked together in Tartu and linkage in Tallinn is due to take place shortly. The Baltic's Nordic neighbors are in the best position to push for greater cooperation and linkage. At the moment, all international telecommunication costs and Internet traffic is paid for by NORDUNET (NORDUNET is a network of networks liking together the Internet Networks of the five Nordic nations). As they are bearing the costs for international Internet traffic to and from the Baltic, they are interested in seeing the most rational use of their telecommunications resources. The increased cooperation in Estonia is due largely to their efforts. The arrival of UNESCO equipment, however, may well divide the two Estonian camps once again as they decide where the hardware will be located. Latvia's two competing networks are both located at the Latvian University's Institute of Mathematics (IOM). The first network, an X.25 network is a gift from the German Government. Access will be provided to international networks via Berlin once the network is established. As this is not a TCP/IP network (Germans favor X.25) it is not a real Internet network. Latvia's TCP/IP Internet Network (Latnet) is run by different individuals within the IOM--Mr. Janis Kikuts and Mr. Guntis Barzdins. They are partners with the Estonian IOC in the BaltBone project and will get a portion of the UNESCO equipment. At the moment, the IOM's window on the INTERNET is through the IOC in Tallinn. Internet is beginning to spread primarily in Riga through the various universities and academic institutions in that city. These organizations pay a fee to be a member of Latnet. The IOM is the domain administrator for the .lt domain. The Lithuanian situation is the most complicated and confusing. This is also one of the reasons why Internet has not really begun to spread there. The BaltBone partners in Lithuania are the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics (IOMI) in Vilnius and Mr. Rimvydas Telksnys. The IOMI and Litnet are in a very weak position, however, because they have almost no equipment to provide the necessary hardware to create a Lithuanian Internet infrastructure. They are also in competition with LITERA (the Lithuanian Academic Research Network) built up from existing UUCP networks. LITERA is run by Algirdas Pakstas who is currently working in Norway although he is the .lv domain administrator. This fact truly complicates matters. Some institutions in Lithuania (namely Vilnius University who is not really connected with either LITERA or Litnet) have limited access to the Internet. The Norwegian Crown provided the Lithuanian government with access to a telecommunications satellite which also allows for some X.400 as well as TCP/IP connectivity. At the moment, this channel to Oslo is Lithuania's window to the Internet. The window, however, is carefully controlled and access to it is extremely limited. If access to the Internet is given to institutions like Vilnius University, it is usually restricted. For example, they can use TELNET but not FTP. Vilnius University is in a privileged position because they have a Norwegian volunteer who works with UNINET (the Norwegian Internet network) to provide access. NORDUNET, the united Nordic Internet Networks, besides paying for most of the international connectivity costs for their Baltic neighbors, are also helping acquire equipment. This project is coordinated by Mr. Mats Brunell of Sweden. While Mr. Brunell has been very successful in acquiring equipment at cut rate costs and this hardware is ready to be donated to institutions in the Baltic, very little of it has been shipped to date. The reason for this hold up is the internal conflict between competing Baltic networks. As Lithuania is in the worse shape, most of the equipment is scheduled to go there. However, since Litnet and LITERA cannot agree to cooperate, NORDUNET is holding back its assistance these two networks begin working together. If they gave equipment to one or the other, NORDUNET feels it will be taking sides which it does not want to do. It can't give equipment to both sides because it does not want to create to separate and competing Internet networks as is the case in Estonia. While the Nordic nations are chiefly responsible for the development of Internet in the Baltic and are themselves a model of international cooperation, even they seem to have problems coordinating assistance in the Baltic. While the Nordic Council and other pan-Nordic organizations like NORDUNET are supposed to coordinate Nordic assistance, they also provide assistance which complicates matters some what. And while the Nordic Council also agreed to coordinate Baltic assistance by decreeing that Finland would primarily help Estonia, Sweden would primarily help Latvia Norway would primarily help Lithuania, and Denmark would fill in the gaps, it does not always work that way. For example, Sweden is helping one of the two Estonian networks while the Finns are helping the other (coordination is lacking). And there are Germans helping the Latvians, Americans (Soros) helping the Estonians, and UNESCO helping everyone which only make matters more confusing. Aware of these problems, NORDUNET has taken steps to make sure that at least its resources are used efficiently and to encourage the Balts to cooperate better among themselves. They arranged a Baltic Internet Workshop in Riga in April in 1993 which I attended. A joint Training Workshop is also being planned. NORDUNET representatives like Mats Brunell also travel to the Baltic frequently to keep all the parties talking to each other. It is ironic that Internet which is supposed to encourage communication and bring people together has set people against each other in the Baltic. This is yet another example that the legacy of the former Soviet Union has still to be overcome. Appendix 5 Using E-Mail in the Former Soviet Union and the Baltic States (A Guide for IREX Scholars) If you bring or have access to a personal computer with a modem in the former Soviet Union, the best way stay in contact with colleagues, friends and family is via electronic mail. Because of its convenience and power, e-mail is rapidly becoming an important means of personal and professional interaction in the West.* For a variety of reasons, e-mail has also proven to be the most effective means of communication with and within the former Soviet Union, where the past two years have witnessed a rapid expansion of services. Proliferation and growth of e-mail service providers has made such communications more reliable and accessible, and less costly in real prices. To be sure, there are still glitches, including technical problems that sometimes delay international transmission and erratic user support. Moreover, the antiquated former Soviet phone network can pose challenges even for sophisticated users with high-quality modems. There are now several FSU-wide e-mail providers. Most have "gateways" to each other and connections of one sort or another to the Internet, so mail can be sent to and received from all over the world. Depending on the location of your placement, you should be able to select a network that best suits your needs and budget. Capabilities vary widely, as do costs. As inflation accelerates, networks are resorting increasingly to charging ruble-dollar equivalents, and pre-payment for servicesmay become the norm. We recommend first checking with your host academic institution to see what kind of network access might be available there. To use e-mail independently, we recommend GlasNet if you can call easily to Moscow or Kiev. If not, then Relcom is likely to be your best option. Below is a list of major networks, with average prices (in dollars) for a typical moderate user, defined as daily or near-daily sending and receiving of international mail. Expect to pay some sort of additional sign-up fee, often the equivalent of 1-2 months' fees. Relcom / Demos To establish an Email account on Relcom you will need to contact the Relcom provider in the city where you will be working. The Moscow Relcom office should be able to give you relevant local phone numbers and other contact information. Relcom/Demos approximate average monthly fee: $20-50. This can vary radically in different cities. Demos (headquarters) pod.1 d.6 Ovchinnikovskaya nab., Moscow 113035 Phone: (095) 231 21 29 postmaster@hq.demos.su Relcom (headquarters) Moscow Phone: (095) 943 47 35 E-mail: postmaster@kiae.su GlasNet and GlasNet-Ukraine Glasnet has several advantages, including low prices, ease of use, and the availability of some valuable services, including inexpensive international and domestic faxing. GlasNet's principal drawback for those residing away from its host computers in Moscow and Kiev is the difficulty "logging-on" to the network over long-distance phone lines from certain cities. There's no predictable pattern here: for example, from Alma Ata, connections to GlasNet's Moscow host are quite good, but from Kazan', GlasNet is nearly impossible to use. To help resolve this problem, local dial-up sites for GlasNet are being tested in St.Petersburg, Odessa, and other cities. You can also use Sprint or IASNet x.25 packet switch networks to login to GlasNet in remote cities, but you will need to get a separate Sprint or IASNet user id to do so. See appendices one and two which list of dialup sites for each of these networks. In April, 1993, a second host of the GlasNet system, "GlasNet- Ukraine" began service in Kiev. Fees are lower than those at GlasNet-Moscow, and they are charged in Ukrainian "coupons" instead of rubles. GlasNet approximate average monthly fee: $10-25. GlasNet Moscow ul. Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya, 4 suite 16 3rd floor 107074 Moscow Phone: (095) 207-0704 Fax: 207-0889 E-mail: support@glas.apc.org GlasNet-Ukraine Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev Phone: (044) 266 9481 Fax: 266 9475 E-mail: nmakovsky@gluk.apc.org For more information: GlasNet-USA Mr. David Caulkins E-mail: dcaulkins@igc.apc.org Sovam Teleport Sovam has a two-tiered price structure. Past scholars have been successful in obtaining accounts in rubles instead of dollars, so long as they signed the contract in the FSU, and not the United States. Sovam approximate average monthly fee (Dollars): $50-100 The same dial-up that one uses to connect to Sovam USA with a dollar account can be used to connect to compuserve, mcimail, etc., on a principle similar to the Sprint system, and probably with Sprint-like prices (up to a dollar per minute of on-line time). Sovam Teleport St. Petersburg Nevskii prospekt 30 St. Petersburg, 191011 2a Nezhdanova Street Moscow, 103009 Phone: 299-34-66 Fax: 299-41-21 E-mail: support@sovamsu.sovusa.com or just support@sovusa.com SUEARN For a full list of nodes, contact the main SUEARN site at: N. D. Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry Leninskii prospekt 47 Moscow 117913 Phone: (095) 135 41 33 Fax: (095) 135 53 28 E-mail: ncc@suearn2.bitnet U. S. Sprint "SprintNet" is joint venture between U.S. Sprint and various NIS communications authorities to provide Western-level telecommunications services in the former Soviet Union, including e-mail. The most reliable FSU-wide network, Sprint is also the most expensive. Sprint is useful if you absolutely need to log into a U.S. e-mail service (such as PeaceNet) while overseas, but this will cost you about 55 cents a minute. A list of Sprint dial-up sites is attached. Sprint Networks Ul. Tverskaya 7, podezd 7 103375 Moscow (In the Central Telegraph building) 095-201-6890 095-923-2344 (fax) The Special Case of the Baltics With the help of NORDUNET (the Scandinavian Internet), "live" connections to Internet are now available at several universities in the Baltics. Recently, American scholars in Latvia have successfully logged onto their home Bitnet accounts. To establish an account, contact the computer science or "informatics" department of the nearest university. You may be charged anywhere from $0-$20 a month. "Fidonet" (somewhat primitive "bulletin board") systems have been prevalent for some time in the Baltics, and generally provide inexpensive e-mail services. However, their reliability varies widely, and they are generally characterized by poor and/or slow international transfers. Relcom is also available in the Baltics, where it is know as "Jet." Telephone connections to GlasNet in Moscow are generally quite poor and becoming increasingly expensive. For more information on Baltic scholarly networking, contact: Mats Brunell Swedish Institute of Computer Science Box 1263, S-164 28, Kista, Sweden Mats.Brunell@sics.se 46 8 72 21 563 Ants Works Insitute of Cybernetics Akadeemia Tee 21, Tallinn EE0026, Estonia E-mail: ants%ioc.ee@sunic.sunet.se 372 2 52 56 22 Guntis Barzdins Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science University of Latvia Rainis blvd. 29, Riga LV1459, Latvia guntis%mii.lu.lv@sunic.sunet.se 371 2 21 24 27 Laimuts Telksyns Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Gosteuto 12, Vilnius 2600, Lithuania telksyns%mii.lt@sunic.sunet.se About Modems You need a modem to log on to an e-mail account from your personal computer. If you're bringing a computer, install an internal modem, so that you don't have to worry about transforming the power supply on an external modem (also one less thing to carry). Make sure the modem has "error correction," to compensate for noisy FSU phone lines. The protocol to look for is called "MNP-5", and try to get this as a hardware feature built into the modem as opposed to a software add-on. We don't recommend that you get any faster than 2400bps because faster modems (e.g. 9600bps) don't always work well on FSU phone lines and few host systems can accommodate higher speeds. Once you arrive, there are several ways to connect your modem. If you clip off the end of a standard US modular phone cable, you will see 4 separate wires: yellow, red, green, and black. The yellow and black are irrelevant; you can ignore them. What you need to do is connect the red and the green wires to the screw terminals in a Soviet phone outlet. You can do this by simply attaching the wires, or you can use alligator clips. Alternately, you can cannibalize a phone jack from an old Soviet phone and wire the red and green wires of your modular cable into it. Sometimes you can find an actual adaptor between the U.S.-style modular phone plug (an "RJ-11" plug) and Soviet jacks, which should cost about 50 cents. The supply of these items is somewhat erratic, however. You may also need to install communications software on your computer to employ the modem. Procomm and Red Ryder are the most common packages for DOS and Macintosh users respectively. How you can help If you use e-mail during your stay, please summarize your experiences in your final report. This helps IREX track rapidly evolving developments in computer communications, enabling us to make more efficient investments in our programs, as well as give better advice to future grantees. * Why Electronic Mail? Electronic mail overcomes many of the problems and cost of using telephones and regular surface mail to communicate. Using a computer terminal or a personal computer with a modem connected to a phone line, users compose and send messages at their convenience. Each message is then forwarded by the user's network to its destination in the addressee's "mailbox," which may be located in Moscow or halfway around the world. When the person to whom it is sent logs in to their e-mail network, the message is waiting; there is no need for both parties to be present simultaneously at their computers. E-mail costs are less than those of long distance telephone calls or air parcel services, and users can also employ many systems to send fax and telex messages, or access lists and databases worldwide. Appendix 6 Cyrillic Character Encoding Methods When corresponding with colleagues in the ex-USSR, questions often arise about the possibility of sending and receiving messages written in Cyrillic characters. In short, it _is_ possible and not even terribly complicated, but requires some background understanding of what is going on. IBM-compatible computers IBM-compatible computers use a standard set of letters and symbols called the "ASCII" character set. All standard Latin letters, numbers and punctuation marks are assigned a number between 1-128. This is called the "lower ASCII register." In fact, however, 255 total ASCII character codes exist, and the additional "upper register" (129-256) can be assigned to other characters--including Cyrillic letters--by special software. To display and manipulate Cyrillic characters on IBM-compatible computers, one must simply activate a Cyrillic screen/keyboard driver, a small piece of software which assigns Cyrillic characters to the upper register and runs constantly in the background while you work in word processors and other programs. Normally one can write as usual in Latin characters, press some combination of keys (both shift keys simultaneously for example) to change to Cyrillic, write in Cyrillic, change back, etc. The resultant document can then be read on any other machine also using a standard Cyrillic driver. Drivers are available for most different types of monitors and with different keyboard layouts--phonetic or standard Russian. For communications purposes, the characters in the lower ASCII registerare represented by 7 data bits, or different permutations of 7 "1s" and "0s". The upper ASCII register is represented by the addition of an 8th bit to the original 7. Most networks within the newly independent states exchange data among themselves in 8-bit format, so it is therefore possible to exchange Cyrillic message texts freely in that part of the world. However, the larger Internet universe is typically limited to 7-bit transmission, which makes ordinary, unmediated exchange of Cyrillic characters impossible. There are several ways around this problem. First, one can simply write messages in transliteration (Latin characters representing the original Cyrillic) from the start. Second, there are various pairs of programs which transliterate automatically. On the US end the writer would run a program to transform Cyrillic text into transliterated Latin text, send the resultant Latin text, and then the recipient could either read the transliteration as is or run the program in reverse to transform the text back into Cyrillic. The authors will attempt to make copies of this software available on the Library of Congress Gopher or an FTP site. Third, there is a standard pair of encoding programs called uuencode/uudecode (available as free software or "sharewhere" just about anyplace--ask your system administrator) which can be used to transform any computer file (program, plain text, WordPerfect file, etc.) into gibberish ASCII text. One can then send the resultant gibberish ASCII text through the network, and the recipient can uudecode it to recover the original file. All of these methods are quite simple; the important thing is to agree with one's correspondents ahead of time which technique will be used. A note about the WordPerfect Cyrillic module: While the WordPerfect Russian module is great for creating and printing Cyrillic documents, it does not use a standard encoding pattern which can be used to send Cyrillic e-mail. One can, of course, uuencode a file in WordPerfect Cyrillic, send it, and the recipient can uudecode and read the resultant document--in WordPerfect. Macintosh Computers The type of Cyrillic encoding described above has not, to date, been developed for Macintosh. One can, of course, create documents in Cyrillic fonts, but this will not offer the online Cyrillic e-mail abilities described above and means it is impossible to send Cyrillic messages to a non-Macintosh. Macintosh Cyrillic fonts simply reassign the _lower_ ASCII register to Cyrillic characters. Sending Cyrillic e-mail to other Macintoshes, however, is easy: simply change your Cyrillic font to a Latin one, send the resultant gibberish text, and make sure that your correspondent on the other end knows that he or she should simply change back to the same Cyrillic Macintosh font in which you created the document. Appendix F - A Brief Word About the Mainstrem Commercial Services These systems do have e-mail gateways with the internet. Fee schedule questions should be directed towards the customer service representatives that these systems provide; call the 800 number directory assistance for contact numbers. CompuServe has forums, news services and databases open to customers; "+" and "($)" denotes the possibility of additional connect time fees or surcharges - user beware. Executive News Service ($) GO ENS Global Crisis Forum + GO CRISIS IQuest ($) GO IQUEST International Trade Forum + GO TRADE Knowledge Index ($) GO KI Magazine Database Plus ($) GO MAGDB NewsGrid + GO NEWSGRID Travel Forum + GO TRAVSIG U.S. News and World Report GO USNEWS Issues Forum + GO ISSUESFORUM Religion Forum + GO RELIGION (personal notes) America OnLine: 1. News and Finance -- Up-to-the-hour articles on current news events. The World News section has a specific section titled USSR/CIS. 2. Religion & Ethics Message Center -- Messages are posted concerning all world faiths. Topics are introduced by the subscribers. 3. Religious Library Center -- Various texts, including those of Judaism & Islam, can be downloaded from this center. 4. The Front Porch Room -- Real-time dialogue on religious issues. Up to 23 people can participate in discussions. This room is used for conferences and scheduled meetings of any religious persuasions. People can organize groups and use this as their meeting place. ( I believe that with large groups, more than 23 people can access) 5. Publications Library -- online magazines including: Israel News Digest Zion Quarterly 6. People Connection -- Real-time dialogue. Rooms are self-named and can be either public or private. Meet people of similiar background or ideas by creating informative room name. Example: Russian Interests; Soviet Jews; etc. The strength of AOL is the real-time dialogue which allows for converstations. People can meet others and then set meeting times for gatherings. The news section does not post updates as quickly as Prodigy, and the message centers do not have as many posts as Prodigy. ------- Prodigy 1. Weather -- World weather conditions which include permanent listings for Lenningrad and Moscow. 2. International Business Bulletin Board -- Includes Eastern Europe listing. Examples of current posting titles: "Contacts in Russia", "Russia Trade Regs". 3. Religious Bulletin Board -- Messages concerning all faiths are posted. 4. Close-up Bulletin Board -- I don't know why they don't call this the political bulletin board, because that's up it is. Most of the posts I saw pertained to U.S. domestic politics, but world politics can be addressed here. 5. Foreign Languages Bulletin Board -- Supposedly the only area of Prodigy where using foreign languages is allowed. Russian is a permanent topic, and messages and responses purely in Russian are present. 6. Internet Forum Bulletin Board --Messages concerning internet are posted. Some sample topics: "Mailing Lists", "E-mail addresses", "internetiquette". Prodigy has a HUGE number of subscribers, and if you post a message with about any question imaginable about any topic, within a day there will be some responses. Thanks, Dave