Boosting the Baud Rate ... Appendices


Boosting the Baud Rate:
E-mail and Connectivity in the Former Soviet Union 

Appendices

1-IASNet X.25 Access Numbers
2-Sprint Nodes Rotary Numbers
4-Preliminary Needs Assessment Report for BALT*INFO Project 5-Using E-mail 
in the Former Soviet Union and the Baltics 
(A Guide for IREX Scholars)
6-Cyrillic Character Encoding Methods

NOTE: Appendix 3, Centers of New Information Technology (CNIT), has not 
been included in this electronic version of this paper. 


Appendix 1

IASNet X.25 Access Numbers

City	Code	Admin	Sovam Support	Modem number
----------------------------------------------------------------- 
Moscow	095	    229-1118	947-5586 932-6765

Baku	8922	66-3995	66-4689	66-0079

Kazan	8432	54-3200	74-3430	76-3688
76-3272

Kiev	044	296-4238	296-4247	296-4292
296-4283

Minsk	0172	26-4560	26-4560	20-7674

Riga	0132	55-1133	55-1133	36-3041

St. Petersburg 812	311-7129	311-8412	311-0365

Ufa	3472	22-5500	22-4827	52-8647

Vladivostok 4232	25-2731	25-2598	25-4633
25-3455
25-9711

Yerevan	8852	28-5082	28-2951	28-4230

II Quarter '93 anticipates adding Alma-Ata, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, 
Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Petrozavodsk 


Appendix 2

Sprint Nodes Rotary Numbers
July 14, 1993

======================================================= 
Location	Republic 
Dial Access (rotary) HELP
DESK
(City)	country/ Local Local
area code Number Number
======================================================= 
Angarsk	Russia 
(218)^	9-4821 6-6401
(7-39518)^^ 9-4821 6-6401
Barnaul	Russia (7-3852) 26-1601 24-1545
Bratsk	Russia (23) ^	42-0620 42-6869
(7-3953)^^ 42-0620 42-6869
Chita	Russia (7-30222) 6-8853 3-3410
Ekaterinburg Russia (7-3432) 51-9945 41-4368 Irkutsk	Russia (7-3952) 
33-6116 43-3496
!!!33-3464
Khabarovsk Russia (7-4212) 21-4937 21-8799 Komsomolsk
na Amure Russia (42172) * 3-6504 3-0249
Krasnoyarsk Russia (7-3912) 21-0529 21-9758 Moscow	Russia (7-095) 928-0985 
201-9285
Neftekamsk Russia (7-34713) 5-7301 5-6509 Nakhodka	Russia (7-42366) 4-2710 
4-4772
Novorossijsk Russia (7-86134) ** 9-1800 6-4380 
** 9-1801
Novosibirsk Russia (7-3832) 29-8861 22-7006 Omsk	Russia (7-3812) **25-4396 
24-1226
**25-6506
Perm	Russia (7-3422) 65-9636 48-8341
Rostov	Russia (7-8632) 69-6911 34-4722
Samara	Russia (7-8462) 33-0021 33-2690
South
Sakhalinsk Russia (7-42400) 2-9091 2-2399 S.Peterburg Russia (7-812) 
110-7792 265-0571 Tomsk	Russia (7-3822) 21-1556 26-6808
Tumen	Russia (7-3452) 25-1910 26-8522
Ust-Ilimsk Russia (235)^	5-7365 5-3918
(7-39535)^^ 5-7365 5-3918
Vladivostok Russia (7-4232) 22-3310 22-5750 Volgograd Russia (7-8442) 
32-9965 32-8366 

Ishimbaj	Russia/
Bashkiria (7-34794) ** 3-3708 ! 52-9890
** 3-3654
Meleuz	Russia/
Bashkiria (7-34764) ** 4-0008 ! 52-9890
2-0424
Neftekamsk Russia/
Bashkiria (7-34713) 5-7301 ! 52-9890

Oktyabrskij Russia/
Bashkiria (7-34767) ** 4-3831 ! 52-9890
Salavat	Russia/
Bashkiria (7-34763) 2-4322 ! 52-9890
Sterlitamak Russia/
Bashkiria (7-34711) 5-5161 ! 52-9890

Ufa	Russia/
Bashkiria (7-3472) 52-9410 52-9890

Yakutsk	Russia/
Yakutia (7-41122) ** 6-2934 5-9345
** 5-9320
** 5-9377

Gomel	Belorussia (7-0232) ***55-1342 55-1132

Tallinn Estonia	(0142) **43-1519 42-1228
**43-1566
(7-3722)!!**43-1519 42-1228
**43-1566
Alma-Ata Kazakhstan (7-3272) 50-7000 63-8936 

Riga	Latvia (7-0132) 22-3817 22-5671

Kiev	Ukraine (7-044) 245-0379 245-4642
Lugansk	Ukraine (7-0642) 53-9010 55-1201
Odessa	Ukraine (7-0482) 26-2801 21-6282

Tashkent Uzbekistan (7-3712) 49-0356 44-1952 

======================================================= 
Note:
^ These area codes will be used for connections from Irkutsk. ^^ These 
area codes will be used for connections from all other 
locations all over the world.
* This Rotary number is not accessible all over the world. ** These 
individual numbers will be changed to Rotary Numbers. *** Gomel Node 
temporary is not in operation for political 
reasons.
! This HELP DESK local number is in Ufa, its area code is 
(7-3472)
!! This are code will be used only for connections from abroad. !!! This 
HELP DESK number will be used for Irkutsk Region 
(Angarsk, Bratsk, Ust-Ilimsk, Chita)


Appendix 4

Preliminary Needs Assessment Report for BALT*INFO Project 

submitted to the International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX) by: Eric 
A. Johnson
Exchange & Gift Division
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20540
eaj@seq1.loc.gov

TEXT (as of July 1993):

The rapid spread of Internet in the Baltic is being both helped and 
hindered by Western assistance. While there are several organizations 
providing the equipment and telecommunications which make Internet 
networking in the Baltic possible, these assistance programs are not 
coordinated and as a result tend to create conflicting constituencies 
within each Baltic nation. Because of this competition, scarce resources 
are not being used in the most effective way possible.

The spread of Internet is most widely advanced in Estonia. Tallinn and the 
university town of Tartu are relatively well connected. Access to the full 
Internet in Lithuania is extremely limited. Vilnius has a few random 
connections (there is no real TCP/IP infrastructure in place) while Kaunas 
does not have any at all. Latvia is somewhere in between. Riga is 
connected to the Internet through Tallinn. Internet would be spreading 
more quickly if there weren't at least two competing networks in each 
country. Lots of smaller non-Internet electronic networks (UUCP, FIDONET, 
GLASNET, and various railway networks exist and provide basic email 
services).

The Estonian network which appears to be the most promising in the 
long-term is run by Mr. Ants Work out of the Academy of Sciences Institute 
of Cybernetics (IOC). It uses a leased fiber optic line to Helsinki (80 KM 
away from Tallinn) as its window on the Internet. This Internet network, 
known as Estnet, is largely self-financing within Estonia although the 
Finnish Ministry of Education is picking up all telecommunications costs 
(for the moment) as soon as the electronic traffic leaves Tallinn and 
begins crossing the Baltic Sea. The Estonian university system (Tallinn 
Technical University, Tartu University, etc.) as well as the Academy of 
Sciences each pay about $10,000 a year to be a member of Estnet and 
receive unlimited connectivity in return. The IOC believes that member 
institutions should get used to paying for Internet just like their 
counterparts do in the West. 

The IOC and Estnet are also the primary participants in the BaltBone 
project. This project is an attempt to connect major research and academic 
institutions in the Baltic to a single electronic Backbone. Access to the 
Internet would be provided via windows at either end of the network (in 
Tallinn to Helsinki and in Vilnius to Warsaw through a line now under 
construction). The creation of BaltBone is being financed in part by a 
$150,000 grant from UNESCO for the purchase of necessary equipment. CoCom 
restrictions have recently been lifted and it is hoped that the equipment 
will be in place by the end of the year. 

The second Internet network in Estonia is run by Mr. Jaak Lippmaa and the 
Academy of Sciences' Institute of Physical Chemistry (KBFI). Its windows 
on the Internet are two satellite dishes (one each in Tallinn and Tartu) 
that transfer electronic traffic to Stockholm. The cost of financing this 
network is about double what the IOC's costs are because of the added cost 
of satellite traffic. All costs, for the moment, are being covered by the 
Soros Foundation (Mr. Lippmaa is on the Estonian board) and by the Swedish 
Government. As a result, being a part of this Internet network is 
essentially free until the end of the year (this was how I got access to 
the full Internet while in Estonia). What will happen by the end of the 
year when funding runs out, no one is really sure. But since this network 
controls the .ee domain, they will remain important players even after 
their money runs out. It is possible that they will begin charging member 
institutions for access to Internet in the future but that would probably 
mean an end to the expensive satellite connections.

The problem with the conflicting networks created by uncoordinated Western 
funding assistance can be seen clearly in Estonia. If two institutions 
connected to different Estonian networks (KBFI and IOC) wish to send a 
message to each other across Tallinn, the message has to be sent to 
Stockholm and Helsinki for routing. The message cannot move across the two 
networks within Tallinn. Steps have been taken to correct these problems. 
The IOC and KBFI networks have been linked together in Tartu and linkage 
in Tallinn is due to take place shortly. 

The Baltic's Nordic neighbors are in the best position to push for greater 
cooperation and linkage. At the moment, all international 
telecommunication costs and Internet traffic is paid for by NORDUNET 
(NORDUNET is a network of networks liking together the Internet Networks 
of the five Nordic nations). As they are bearing the costs for 
international Internet traffic to and from the Baltic, they are interested 
in seeing the most rational use of their telecommunications resources. The 
increased cooperation in Estonia is due largely to their efforts. The 
arrival of UNESCO equipment, however, may well divide the two Estonian 
camps once again as they decide where the hardware will be located.

Latvia's two competing networks are both located at the Latvian 
University's Institute of Mathematics (IOM). The first network, an X.25 
network is a gift from the German Government. Access will be provided to 
international networks via Berlin once the network is established. As this 
is not a TCP/IP network (Germans favor X.25) it is not a real Internet 
network. 

Latvia's TCP/IP Internet Network (Latnet) is run by different individuals 
within the IOM--Mr. Janis Kikuts and Mr. Guntis Barzdins. They are 
partners with the Estonian IOC in the BaltBone project and will get a 
portion of the UNESCO equipment. At the moment, the IOM's window on the 
INTERNET is through the IOC in Tallinn. Internet is beginning to spread 
primarily in Riga through the various universities and academic 
institutions in that city. These organizations pay a fee to be a member of 
Latnet. The IOM is the domain administrator for the .lt domain. 

The Lithuanian situation is the most complicated and confusing. This is 
also one of the reasons why Internet has not really begun to spread there. 
The BaltBone partners in Lithuania are the Institute of Mathematics and 
Informatics (IOMI) in Vilnius and Mr. Rimvydas Telksnys. The IOMI and 
Litnet are in a very weak position, however, because they have almost no 
equipment to provide the necessary hardware to create a Lithuanian 
Internet infrastructure. They are also in competition with LITERA (the 
Lithuanian Academic Research Network) built up from existing UUCP 
networks. LITERA is run by Algirdas Pakstas who is currently working in 
Norway although he is the .lv domain administrator. This fact truly 
complicates matters.

Some institutions in Lithuania (namely Vilnius University who is not 
really connected with either LITERA or Litnet) have limited access to the 
Internet. The Norwegian Crown provided the Lithuanian government with 
access to a telecommunications satellite which also allows for some X.400 
as well as TCP/IP connectivity. At the moment, this channel to Oslo is 
Lithuania's window to the Internet. The window, however, is carefully 
controlled and access to it is extremely limited. If access to the 
Internet is given to institutions like Vilnius University, it is usually 
restricted. For example, they can use TELNET but not FTP. Vilnius 
University is in a privileged position because they have a Norwegian 
volunteer who works with UNINET (the Norwegian Internet network) to 
provide access.

NORDUNET, the united Nordic Internet Networks, besides paying for most of 
the international connectivity costs for their Baltic neighbors, are also 
helping acquire equipment. This project is coordinated by Mr. Mats Brunell 
of Sweden. While Mr. Brunell has been very successful in acquiring 
equipment at cut rate costs and this hardware is ready to be donated to 
institutions in the Baltic, very little of it has been shipped to date. 
The reason for this hold up is the internal conflict between competing 
Baltic networks. As Lithuania is in the worse shape, most of the equipment 
is scheduled to go there. However, since Litnet and LITERA cannot agree to 
cooperate, NORDUNET is holding back its assistance these two networks 
begin working together. If they gave equipment to one or the other, 
NORDUNET feels it will be taking sides which it does not want to do. It 
can't give equipment to both sides because it does not want to create to 
separate and competing Internet networks as is the case in Estonia.

While the Nordic nations are chiefly responsible for the development of 
Internet in the Baltic and are themselves a model of international 
cooperation, even they seem to have problems coordinating assistance in 
the Baltic. While the Nordic Council and other pan-Nordic organizations 
like NORDUNET are supposed to coordinate Nordic assistance, they also 
provide assistance which complicates matters some what. And while the 
Nordic Council also agreed to coordinate Baltic assistance by decreeing 
that Finland would primarily help Estonia, Sweden would primarily help 
Latvia, Norway would primarily help Lithuania, and Denmark would fill in 
the gaps, it does not always work that way. For example, Sweden is helping 
one of the two Estonian networks while the Finns are helping the other 
(coordination is lacking). And there are Germans helping the Latvians, 
Americans (Soros) helping the Estonians, and UNESCO helping everyone which only make matters more 
confusing.

Aware of these problems, NORDUNET has taken steps to make sure that at 
least its resources are used efficiently and to encourage the Balts to 
cooperate better among themselves. They arranged a Baltic Internet 
Workshop in Riga in April in 1993 which I attended. A joint Training 
Workshop is also being planned. NORDUNET representatives like Mats Brunell 
also travel to the Baltic frequently to keep all the parties talking to 
each other. It is ironic that Internet which is supposed to encourage 
communication and bring people together has set people against each other 
in the Baltic. This is yet another example that the legacy of the former 
Soviet Union has still to be overcome. 


Appendix 5

Using E-Mail in the Former Soviet Union and the Baltic States (A Guide for 
IREX Scholars)

If you bring or have access to a personal computer with a modem in the 
former Soviet Union, the best way stay in contact with colleagues, friends 
and family is via electronic mail. Because of its convenience and power, 
e-mail is rapidly becoming an important means of personal and professional 
interaction in the West.*

For a variety of reasons, e-mail has also proven to be the most effective 
means of communication with and within the former Soviet Union, where the 
past two years have witnessed a rapid expansion of services. Proliferation 
and growth of e-mail service providers has made such communications more 
reliable and accessible, and less costly in real prices. 

To be sure, there are still glitches, including technical problems that 
sometimes delay international transmission and erratic user support. 
Moreover, the antiquated former Soviet phone network can pose challenges 
even for sophisticated users with high-quality modems.

There are now several FSU-wide e-mail providers. Most have "gateways" to 
each other and connections of one sort or another to the Internet, so mail 
can be sent to and received from all over the world.

Depending on the location of your placement, you should be able to select 
a network that best suits your needs and budget. Capabilities vary widely, 
as do costs. As inflation accelerates, networks are resorting increasingly 
to charging ruble-dollar equivalents, and pre-payment for servicesmay 
become the norm. 

We recommend first checking with your host academic institution to see 
what kind of network access might be available there. To use e-mail 
independently, we recommend GlasNet if you can call easily to Moscow or 
Kiev. If not, then Relcom is likely to be your best option.

Below is a list of major networks, with average prices (in dollars) for a 
typical moderate user, defined as daily or near-daily sending and 
receiving of international mail. Expect to pay some sort of additional 
sign-up fee, often the equivalent of 1-2 months' fees.

Relcom / Demos

To establish an Email account on Relcom you will need to contact the 
Relcom provider in the city where you will be working. The Moscow Relcom 
office should be able to give you relevant local phone numbers and other 
contact information. 

Relcom/Demos approximate average monthly fee: $20-50. This can vary 
radically in different cities. 

Demos (headquarters)
pod.1 d.6 Ovchinnikovskaya nab.,
Moscow 113035
Phone: (095) 231 21 29
postmaster@hq.demos.su

Relcom (headquarters)
Moscow
Phone: (095) 943 47 35
E-mail: postmaster@kiae.su

GlasNet and GlasNet-Ukraine

Glasnet has several advantages, including low prices, ease of use, and the 
availability of some valuable services, including inexpensive 
international and domestic faxing. GlasNet's principal drawback for those 
residing away from its host computers in Moscow and Kiev is the difficulty 
"logging-on" to the network over long-distance phone lines from certain 
cities. There's no predictable pattern here: for example, from Alma Ata, 
connections to GlasNet's Moscow host are quite good, but from Kazan', 
GlasNet is nearly impossible to use. To help resolve this problem, local 
dial-up sites for GlasNet are being tested in St.Petersburg, Odessa, and 
other cities. 

You can also use Sprint or IASNet x.25 packet switch networks to login to 
GlasNet in remote cities, but you will need to get a separate Sprint or 
IASNet user id to do so. See appendices one and two which list of dialup 
sites for each of these networks. 

In April, 1993, a second host of the GlasNet system, "GlasNet- Ukraine" 
began service in Kiev. Fees are lower than those at GlasNet-Moscow, and 
they are charged in Ukrainian "coupons" instead of rubles.

GlasNet approximate average monthly fee: $10-25. 

GlasNet Moscow
ul. Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya, 4 suite 16 3rd floor 107074 Moscow
Phone: (095) 207-0704
Fax: 207-0889
E-mail: support@glas.apc.org

GlasNet-Ukraine
Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev
Phone: (044) 266 9481
Fax: 266 9475
E-mail: nmakovsky@gluk.apc.org

For more information:
GlasNet-USA
Mr. David Caulkins
E-mail: dcaulkins@igc.apc.org

Sovam Teleport

Sovam has a two-tiered price structure. Past scholars have been successful 
in obtaining accounts in rubles instead of dollars, so long as they signed 
the contract in the FSU, and not the United States.

Sovam approximate average monthly fee (Dollars): $50-100 

The same dial-up that one uses to connect to Sovam USA with a dollar 
account can be used to connect to compuserve, mcimail, etc., on a 
principle similar to the Sprint system, and probably with Sprint-like 
prices (up to a dollar per minute of on-line time).

Sovam Teleport

St. Petersburg
Nevskii prospekt 30
St. Petersburg, 191011

2a Nezhdanova Street
Moscow, 103009
Phone: 299-34-66
Fax: 299-41-21
E-mail: support@sovamsu.sovusa.com
or just support@sovusa.com

SUEARN

For a full list of nodes, contact the main SUEARN site at: 

N. D. Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry Leninskii prospekt 47
Moscow 117913
Phone: (095) 135 41 33
Fax: (095) 135 53 28
E-mail: ncc@suearn2.bitnet

U. S. Sprint

"SprintNet" is joint venture between U.S. Sprint and various NIS 
communications authorities to provide Western-level telecommunications 
services in the former Soviet Union, including e-mail. The most reliable 
FSU-wide network, Sprint is also the most expensive. Sprint is useful if 
you absolutely need to log into a U.S. e-mail service (such as PeaceNet) 
while overseas, but this will cost you about 55 cents a minute. A list of 
Sprint dial-up sites is attached.

Sprint Networks
Ul. Tverskaya 7, podezd 7
103375 Moscow
(In the Central Telegraph building)
095-201-6890
095-923-2344 (fax)

The Special Case of the Baltics

With the help of NORDUNET (the Scandinavian Internet), "live" connections 
to Internet are now available at several universities in the Baltics. 
Recently, American scholars in Latvia have successfully logged onto their 
home Bitnet accounts. To establish an account, contact the computer 
science or "informatics" department of the nearest university. You may be 
charged anywhere from $0-$20 a month.

"Fidonet" (somewhat primitive "bulletin board") systems have been 
prevalent for some time in the Baltics, and generally provide inexpensive 
e-mail services. However, their reliability varies widely, and they are 
generally characterized by poor and/or slow international transfers.

Relcom is also available in the Baltics, where it is know as "Jet." 
Telephone connections to GlasNet in Moscow are generally quite poor and 
becoming increasingly expensive. 

For more information on Baltic scholarly networking, contact:

Mats Brunell
Swedish Institute of Computer Science
Box 1263, S-164 28, Kista, Sweden
Mats.Brunell@sics.se
46 8 72 21 563

Ants Works
Insitute of Cybernetics
Akadeemia Tee 21, Tallinn EE0026, Estonia E-mail: 
ants%ioc.ee@sunic.sunet.se
372 2 52 56 22

Guntis Barzdins
Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science University of Latvia
Rainis blvd. 29, Riga LV1459, Latvia
guntis%mii.lu.lv@sunic.sunet.se
371 2 21 24 27

Laimuts Telksyns
Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Gosteuto 12, Vilnius 2600, 
Lithuania
telksyns%mii.lt@sunic.sunet.se

About Modems

You need a modem to log on to an e-mail account from your personal 
computer. If you're bringing a computer, install an internal modem, so 
that you don't have to worry about transforming the power supply on an 
external modem (also one less thing to carry).

Make sure the modem has "error correction," to compensate for noisy FSU 
phone lines. The protocol to look for is called "MNP-5", and try to get 
this as a hardware feature built into the modem as opposed to a software 
add-on. We don't recommend that you get any faster than 2400bps because 
faster modems (e.g. 9600bps) don't always work well on FSU phone lines and 
few host systems can accommodate higher speeds.

Once you arrive, there are several ways to connect your modem. If you clip 
off the end of a standard US modular phone cable, you will see 4 separate 
wires: yellow, red, green, and black. The yellow and black are irrelevant; 
you can ignore them. What you need to do is connect the red and the green 
wires to the screw terminals in a Soviet phone outlet. You can do this by 
simply attaching the wires, or you can use alligator clips. Alternately, 
you can cannibalize a phone jack from an old Soviet phone and wire the red 
and green wires of your modular cable into it. Sometimes you can find an 
actual adaptor between the U.S.-style modular phone plug (an "RJ-11" plug) 
and Soviet jacks, which should cost about 50 cents. The supply of these 
items is somewhat erratic, however.

You may also need to install communications software on your computer to 
employ the modem. Procomm and Red Ryder are the most common packages for 
DOS and Macintosh users respectively. 

How you can help

If you use e-mail during your stay, please summarize your experiences in 
your final report. This helps IREX track rapidly evolving developments in 
computer communications, enabling us to make more efficient investments in 
our programs, as well as give better advice to future grantees.

* Why Electronic Mail?

Electronic mail overcomes many of the problems and cost of using 
telephones and regular surface mail to communicate. Using a computer 
terminal or a personal computer with a modem connected to a phone line, 
users compose and send messages at their convenience. Each message is then 
forwarded by the user's network to its destination in the addressee's 
"mailbox," which may be located in Moscow or halfway around the world. 
When the person to whom it is sent logs in to their e-mail network, the 
message is waiting; there is no need for both parties to be present 
simultaneously at their computers. E-mail costs are less than those of 
long distance telephone calls or air parcel services, and users can also 
employ many systems to send fax and telex messages, or access lists and 
databases worldwide. 


Appendix 6

Cyrillic Character Encoding Methods

When corresponding with colleagues in the ex-USSR, questions often arise 
about the possibility of sending and receiving messages written in 
Cyrillic characters. In short, it _is_ possible and not even terribly 
complicated, but requires some background understanding of what is going 
on. 

IBM-compatible computers

IBM-compatible computers use a standard set of letters and symbols called 
the "ASCII" character set. All standard Latin letters, numbers and 
punctuation marks are assigned a number between 1-128. This is called the 
"lower ASCII register." In fact, however, 255 total ASCII character codes 
exist, and the additional "upper register" (129-256) can be assigned to 
other characters--including Cyrillic letters--by special software. 

To display and manipulate Cyrillic characters on IBM-compatible computers, 
one must simply activate a Cyrillic screen/keyboard driver, a small piece 
of software which assigns Cyrillic characters to the upper register and 
runs constantly in the background while you work in word processors and 
other programs. Normally one can write as usual in Latin characters, press 
some combination of keys (both shift keys simultaneously for example) to 
change to Cyrillic, write in Cyrillic, change back, etc. The resultant 
document can then be read on any other machine also using a standard 
Cyrillic driver. Drivers are available for most different types of 
monitors and with different keyboard layouts--phonetic or standard Russian.

For communications purposes, the characters in the lower ASCII register 
are represented by 7 data bits, or different permutations of 7 "1s" and 
"0s". The upper ASCII register is represented by the addition of an 8th 
bit to the original 7. Most networks within the newly independent states 
exchange data among themselves in 8-bit format, so it is therefore 
possible to exchange Cyrillic message texts freely in that part of the 
world. However, the larger Internet universe is typically limited to 7-bit 
transmission, which makes ordinary, unmediated exchange of Cyrillic 
characters impossible.

There are several ways around this problem. First, one can simply write 
messages in transliteration (Latin characters representing the original 
Cyrillic) from the start. 

Second, there are various pairs of programs which transliterate 
automatically. On the US end the writer would run a program to transform 
Cyrillic text into transliterated Latin text, send the resultant Latin 
text, and then the recipient could either read the transliteration as is 
or run the program in reverse to transform the text back into Cyrillic. 
The authors will attempt to make copies of this software available on the 
Library of Congress Gopher or an FTP site.

Third, there is a standard pair of encoding programs called 
uuencode/uudecode (available as free software or "sharewhere" just about 
anyplace--ask your system administrator) which can be used to transform 
any computer file (program, plain text, WordPerfect file, etc.) into 
gibberish ASCII text. One can then send the resultant gibberish ASCII text 
through the network, and the recipient can uudecode it to recover the 
original file. 

All of these methods are quite simple; the important thing is to agree 
with one's correspondents ahead of time which technique will be used.

A note about the WordPerfect Cyrillic module: While the WordPerfect 
Russian module is great for creating and printing Cyrillic documents, it 
does not use a standard encoding pattern which can be used to send 
Cyrillic e-mail. One can, of course, uuencode a file in WordPerfect 
Cyrillic, send it, and the recipient can uudecode and read the resultant 
document--in WordPerfect.

Macintosh Computers

The type of Cyrillic encoding described above has not, to date, been 
developed for Macintosh. One can, of course, create documents in Cyrillic 
fonts, but this will not offer the online Cyrillic e-mail abilities 
described above and means it is impossible to send Cyrillic messages to a 
non-Macintosh. Macintosh Cyrillic fonts simply reassign the _lower_ ASCII 
register to Cyrillic characters. Sending Cyrillic e-mail to other 
Macintoshes, however, is easy: simply change your Cyrillic font to a Latin 
one, send the resultant gibberish text, and make sure that your 
correspondent on the other end knows that he or she should simply change 
back to the same Cyrillic Macintosh font in which you created the document.