SECTION ONE Chapter 4. President of the Russian Federation

LAST UPDATE: 03/15/94

CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AS APPROVED BY RF PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AND SUBMITTED TO NATIONAL REFERENDUM IN DECEMBER 1993

Article 80.  1. The President of the Russian Federation shall be the head of st
ate.
2. The President shall be the guarantor of the Constitution of the
Russian Federation, and of human and civil rights and freedoms. In accordance w
ith the procedure established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, he
 shall take measures to protect the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, its
independence and s

tate integrity, and ensure concerted functioning and interaction of all bodies
of state power.
3. The President of the Russian Federation shall define the basic domestic and
foreign policy guidelines of the state in accordance with the Constitution of t
                                               Russian Constitution (p41 of 77)
he Russian Federation and federal laws.
4. The President of the Russian Federation as head of state shall represent the
 Russian Federation inside the country and in international
relations.

  Article 81.  1. The President of the Russian Federation shall be
elected for a term of four years by the citizens of the Russian
Federation on the basis of general, equal and direct vote by secret ballot.  2.
 A citizen of the Russian Federation not younger than 35, who has resided in th
e Russian Federation for not less than 10 years, may be elected President of th
e Russian Federati

on.
3. No one person shall hold the office of President of the Russian Federation f
or more than two terms in succession.
4. The procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation shall be
determined by federal law.

Article 82.  1. At his inauguration the President of the Russian Federation sha
ll take the following oath to the people: "I vow, in the performance of my powe
rs as the President of the Russian Federation to respect and protect the rights
                                               Russian Constitution (p42 of 77)
 and freedoms of m

an and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federati
on, to protect the sovereignty and
independence, security and integrity of the state and to serve the people
faithfully." 2. The oath shall be taken in a solemn atmosphere in the presence
of members of the Council of the Federation, deputies of the
State Duma and judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

Article 83.  The President of the Russian Federation shall: a) appoint Chairman
 of the Government of the Russian Federation subject to consent of the State Du
ma; b) have the right to preside over meetings of the Government of the Russian
 Federation; c) de

cide on resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation; d) introduce t
o the State Duma a candidature for appointment to the office of the Chairman of
 the Central Bank of the Russian Federation; submit to the State Duma the propo
sal on relieving t

he Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation
of his duties; e) appoint and dismiss deputy chairmen of the Government of the
-                                               Russian Constitution (p43 of 77)
Russian Federation and federal ministers as proposed by the Chairman of the Gov
ernment of the Russian Federation; f) submit to the Federation
Council candidates for appointment to the office of judges of the
Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russia
n Federation and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation as wel
l as the candidate for Prosecutor- General of the Russian Federation; submit to
 the Federation Co

uncil the proposal on relieving the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federatio
n of his duties; appoint the judges of other federal courts.  g) form and head
the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the status of which is determin
ed by federal law;

 h) endorse the military doctrine of the Russian Federation; i) form
the staff of the President of the Russian Federation; j) appoint and dismiss pl
enipotentiary representatives of the President of the Russian
Federation; k) appoint and dismiss the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces of t
he Russian Federation; l) appoint and recall, after consultations with the resp
ective committees or commissions of the Federal Assembly, diplomatic representa
tives of the Russi

                                               Russian Constitution (p44 of 77)
an Federation to foreign states and
international organizations.

  Article 84.  The President of the Russian Federation shall: a) call elections
 to the chambers of the State Duma in accordance with the Constitution of the R
ussian Federation and federal law; b) dissolve the State Duma in cases and unde
r procedures envis

aged by the Constitution
of the Russian Federation; c) call a referendum under procedures established by
 federal constitutional law; d) introduce draft laws in the State Duma; e) sign
 and publish federal laws; f) present annual messages to the Federal Assembly o
n the situation in

 the country and on basic directions of the internal and external policies of t
he state.

Article 85.  1. The President of the Russian Federation may use dispute- settle
ment procedures to settle differences between organs of state power of the Russ
ian Federation and organs of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federat
ion, and also betw
                                               Russian Constitution (p45 of 77)

een organs of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation. If no deci
sion is agreed upon, he may turn the dispute over for review by the respective
court of law.
2. The President of the Russian Federation shall have the right to
suspend acts by organs of executive power of the subjects of the Russian
Federation if such acts contravene the Constitution of the Russian Federation a
nd federal laws, the international obligations of the Russian Federation, or vi
olate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue
 in appropriate co

urt.

Article 86.  The President of the Russian Federation shall: a) supervise the co
nduct of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation; b) conduct negotiations
and sign international treaties of the Russian Federation; c)
sign instruments of ratification; d) accept credentials and instruments of reca
ll of diplomatic representatives accredited with him.

  Article 87.  1. The President of the Russian Federation shall be the Supreme
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
                                               Russian Constitution (p46 of 77)
2. In the event of aggression against the Russian Federation or an immediate th
reat thereof, the President of the Russian Federation shall
introduce martial law on the territory of the Russian Federation or in areas th
ereof with immediate notification thereof of the Federation Council and the Sta
te Duma.

Article 88.  Under the circumstances and procedures envisaged by the Federal Co
nstitutional Law, the President of the Russian Federation shall
impose a state of emergency on the territory of the Russian Federation or in ar
eas thereof with immediate notification of the Federation Council and the State
 Duma.

Article 89.  The President of the Russian Federation shall: a) resolve issues o
f citizenship of the Russian Federation and of granting political
asylum; b) award state decorations of the Russian Federation, confer honorary t
itles of the Russian Federation and top military ranks and top specialized titl
es; c) grant pardon.

  Article 90.  1. The President of the Russian Federation shall issue
decrees and executive orders.
2. The decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation shall be b
                                               Russian Constitution (p47 of 77)
inding throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.
3. The decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation may not co
ntravene the Constitution of the Russian Federation or federal laws.

Article 91.  The President of the Russian Federation shall possess immunity.

Article 92.  1. The President of the Russian Federation shall assume his powers
 from the time he shall be sworn in and terminate his exercise
of such powers with the expiry of his tenure of office from the time the
newly-elected President of the Russian Federation shall have been sworn in.  2.
 The powers of the President of the Russian Federation shall be
terminated in the event of his resignation or sustained inability due to health
 to discharge his powers or in the event of impeachment. In such cases new elec
tions of the President of the Russian Federation shall be held not later than t
hree months after

the early termination of the President's powers.
3. In all cases when the President of the Russian Federation shall be unable to
 perform his duties such duties shall be temporarily performed by the chairman
of the Government of the Russian Federation. The acting president of the Russia
n Federation shall
                                               Russian Constitution (p48 of 77)

 have no right to dissolve the State Duma, call a referendum or make proposals
on amendment or revision of the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian F
ederation.

 Article 93 1. The President of the Russian Federation may be impeached by the
Federation Council only on the basis of charges put forward against him of high
 treason or some other grave crime, confirmed by a ruling of
the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation on the presence of indicia of crime
 in the President's actions and by a ruling of the Constitutional
Court of the Russian Federation confirming that the procedure of bringing
charges has been observed.
2. The ruling of the State Duma on putting forward charges and the
decision of the Federation Council on impeachment of the President shall be
passed by the votes of two-thirds of the total number in each of the chambers a
t the initiative of at least one-third of the deputies of the State Duma and in
 the presence of the opinion of a special commission formed by the State Duma.
3. The decision of the Federation Council on impeaching the President of the Ru
ssian Federation shall be passed within three months of the
charges being brought against the President by the State Duma. The charges
against the President shall be considered to be rejected if the decision of
                                               Russian Constitution (p49 of 77)
the Federation Council shall not be passed.