CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AS APPROVED BY RF PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AND SUBMITTED TO NATIONAL REFERENDUM IN DECEMBER 1993
Article 65. 1. The Russian Federation shall consist of the subjects of the Fe deration: Republic of Adygeya (Adygeya), Republic of Altai, Republic of Bashkor tostan, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Dagestan, Ingush Republic, Kabardin-B alkar Republic, Re public of Kalmykia -- Khalmg Tangch, Karachayevo-Cherkess Republic, Republic of Karelia, Republic of Komi, Republic of Mari El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of North Ossetia, Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarsta n), Republic of Tu va, Udmurt Republic, Republic of Khakasia, Chechen Republic, Chuvash Republic - - Chavash Republics; Altai Territory, Krasnodar Territory, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Maritime Territory, Stavropol Territory, Khabarovsk Russian Constitution (p28 of 77) Territory; Amur Region, Arkhangelsk Region, Astrakhan Region, Belgorod Region, Bryansk Region, Vladimir Region, Volgograd Region, Vologda Region, Voronezh Region, Ivanovo Region, Irkutsk Region, Kaliningrad Region, Ka luga Region, Kamchatka Region, Kemerovo Region, Kirov Region, Kostroma Region, Kurgan Region, Kursk Region, Leningrad Region, Lipetsk Region, Magadan Region, Moscow Region, Mur mansk Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Novgorod Region, Novosibirsk Region, Omsk Region, Orenburg Region, Oryol Region, Penza Region, Perm Region, Pskov Region , Rostov Region, Ryazan Region, Samara Region, Saratov Region, Sakhalin Region, Sverdlovsk Region , Smolensk Region, Tambov Region, Tver Region, Tomsk Region, Tula Relation, Tyu men Region, Ulyanovsk Region, Chelyabinsk Region, Chita Region, Yaroslavl Regio n; Moscow, St. Petersburg -- federal cities; Jewish Autonomous Region; Aginsky Buryat Autonomous Area, Komi-Permyak Autonomous Area , Koryak Autonomous Area, Nenets Autonomous Area, Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autono mous Area, Ust-Ordynsky Buryat Autonomous Area, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, C hukchi Autonomous Area, Evenk Autonomous Area, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area. Russian Constitution (p29 of 77) 2. Accession to the Russian Federation and formation of a new subject of the Russian Federation within it shall be carried out as envisaged by the federal constitutional law. Article 66. 1. The status of a republic shall be defined by the Constitution o f the Russian Federation and the constitution of the republic in question. 2. The status of a territory, region, federal city,and autonomous region and au tonomous area shall be determined by Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Charter of the territory, region, city of federal importance, autonomous r egion, autonomous area, adopted by the legislative (representative) body of the relevant subject of the Russian Federation. 3. A federal law on autonomous region, autonomous area may be adopted at the no mination from the legislative and executive bodies of an autonomous region, aut onomous area. 4. Relations between autonomous areas within a territory or region may be regul ated by the federal law and an agreement between bodies of state power of the a utonomous area and, respectively, bodies of state power of the territory or the Russian Constitution (p30 of 77) region. 5. The status of a subject of the Russian Federation may be changed only with mutual consent of the Russian Federation and the subject of the Russian Fe deration in accordance with the federal constitutional law. Article 67. 1. The territory of the Russian Federation shall incorporate the t erritories of its subjects, the internal and territorial seas and the air space over them. 2. The Russian Federation shall have sovereign rights and exercise jurisdiction on the continental shelf and in the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Fed eration under the procedure stipulated by the federal law and norms of internat ional law. 3. The boundaries between the subjects of the Russian Federation may be changed by their mutual agreement. Article 68. 1. The state language of the Russian Federation throughout its ter ritory shall be the Russian language. 2. The republics shall have the right to institute their own state languages. T hey shall be used alongside the state language of the Russian Federation in bodies of state power, bodies of local self-government and Russian Constitution (p31 of 77) state institutions of the republics. 3. The Russian Federation shall guarantee all its peoples the right to preserve their native language and to create the conditions for its study and developme nt. Article 69. The Russian Federation guarantees the rights of small indigenous p eoples in accordance with the generally accepted principles and standards of in ternational law and international treaties of the Russian Federation. Article 70. 1. The national flag, State Emblem, and the national anthem, the ir description and the procedure for their official use shall be established by the federal constitutional law. 2. The capital of the Russian Federation is the city of Moscow. The status of t he capital shall be established by the federal law. Article 71. The jurisdiction of the Russian Federation shall include: a) the adoption and amendment of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federa l laws and supervision over compliance with them; b) the federal structure and territory of the R ussian Federation; c) regulation and protection of the rights and liberties of Russian Constitution (p32 of 77) the human being and citizen; citizenship of the Russian Federation; regulation and protection of the rights of national minorities; d) establishment of the sy stem of federal bo dies of legislative, executive and judiciary power, procedure for the organizat ion and activities thereof; formation of federal bodies of state power; e) fede ral and state property and management thereof; f) determining the basic princip les of federal pol icy and federal programs in the field of state structure, the economy, the envi ronment, and the social, cultural and national development of the Russian Federation; g) establishment of the legal framework for a single market; financial, monetary, credit and customs re gulation, emission of money and guidelines for price policy; federal economic services, including federal banks; h) the federal budget; fede ral taxes and levies; federal funds of regional development; i) federal power g rids, nuclear energy, fissionable materials; federal transport, railways, infor mation and communi cations; space activities; j) foreign policy and international relations of the Russian Constitution (p33 of 77) Russian Federation, international treaties of the Russian questions of war and peace; k) foreign trade relations of the Russian Federation; l) defense and se curity; defense pr oduction; determining procedures for the sale and purchase of arms, ammunition, military hardware and other equipment; production of fissionable materials, to xic substances, narcotics and procedure for the use thereof; m) defining the st atus and protectio n of the state border, territorial waters, the air space, the exclusive economi c zone and the continental shelf of the Russian Federation; n) law courts; Pros ecutor's Office; criminal, criminal-procedural and criminal-executive legislation; amnesty and pardon; civil, civil-procedural and arbitration-procedural legislation; legal regulation of intellectual property; o) federal conflict of laws; p) meteorological service; standards, models, the metric system and time measurement; geodesy and cartography; names of geographical objects; official statistics and accounting; q) state decorations and honorary titles of the Russian Federation; r) federal state service. Article 72. 1. The joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjec Russian Constitution (p34 of 77) ts of the Russian Federation shall include: a) ensuring compliance of the const itutions and laws of the republics, charters, laws, and other regulatory legal acts of the territ ories, regions, federal cities, the autonomous region and autonomous areas with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federallaws; b) protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, protection of the rights of ethn ic minorities; ens uring legality, law and order, and public safety; border zone regime; c) issues of the possession, use and management of the land, mineral resources, water an d other natural resources; d) delimitation of state property; e) management of natural resources, protection of the environment and ecological safety; specially protected natur al reserves; protection of historical and cultural monuments; f) general questi ons of upbringing, education, science, culture, physical culture and sports; g) coordination of h ealth issues, protection of family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood; socia l protection including social security; h) implementing measures to combat cata Russian Constitution (p35 of 77) strophes, natural disasters, epidemics and eliminating consequences thereof; i) establishment of the general guidelines fo r taxation and levies in the Russian Federation; j) administrative, administrat ive-procedural, labor, family, housing, land, water and forestry legislation; l egislation on the sub-surface and environmental protection; k) cadres of judiciary and law-enforc ement agencies; the bar, notariate; l) protection of the original environment a nd traditional way of life of small ethnic communities; m) establishment of gen eral guidelines of the organization of the system of bodies of state power and local self-governm ent; n) coordination of the international and external economic relations of th e subjects of the Russian Federation, compliance with the international treatie s of the Russian F ederation. 2. The provisions of this Article shall equally apply to the republics, territo ries, regions, federal cities, the autonomous region and autonomous areas. Article 73. Outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the powe Russian Constitution (p36 of 77) rs of the Russian Federation on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the Rus sian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation, the subjects of the Russian Federatio n shall exercise the entire spectrum of state power. Article 74. 1. No customs frontiers, duties, levies, or any other barriers for free movement of goods, services, or financial means may be established on the territory of the Russian Federation. 2. Restrictions on the movement of goods and services may be established under the federal law, if this is necessary for the protection of the people's safety , their lives and health, protection of environment and cultural values. Article 75. 1. The monetary unit of the Russian Federation shall be the ruble. The monetary emission shall be the exclusive responsibility of the Central Ban k of the Russian Federation. No other currencies may be issued in the Russian F ederation. 2. The protection and stability of the ruble is the main function of the Centra l Bank of the Russian Federation which it shall exercise independently from oth er bodies of state power. 3. The system of taxes levied to the federal budget and the general principles Russian Constitution (p37 of 77) of taxation and levies in the Russian Federation shall be established by the fe deral law. 4. State loans shall be issued in accordance with the procedure established by the federal law and placed on a strictly voluntary basis. Article 76. 1. On issues within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation f ederal constitutional laws and federal laws shall be adopted having direct effe ct throughout the territory of the Russian Federation. 2. On matters within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the s ubjects of the Russian Federation federal laws shall be issued and in accordanc e with them laws and other regulatory legal acts of the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be adopted. 3. Federal laws may not contravene federal constitutional laws. 4. Outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Fe deration republics, territories, regions, federal cities, autonomous regions an d autonomous areas shall effect their own legal regulation, including the adopt ion of laws and ot Russian Constitution (p38 of 77) her regulatory legal acts. 5. Laws and other regulatory legal acts of the sub jects of the Russian Federation may not contravene federal laws adopted in acco rdance with parts 1 and 2 of this Article. In the event of a contradiction betw een a federal law and any other act issued in the Russian Federation, the federal law shall apply . 6. In the event of a contradiction between the federal law and a regulatory legal act of a subject of the Russian Federation issued in accordance with part 4 of this Article, the regulatory legal act of the subject of the Russian Federation shall apply. Article 77.1. The system of state power bodies of the republics, territories, r egions, federal cities, the autonomous region, autonomous areas shall be establ ished by the subjects of the Russian Federation independently in accordance wit h the basic princi ples of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and general princip les of the organization of legislative and executive bodies of power as envisag ed by the federal law. 2. Within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russ ian Federation on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federatio Russian Constitution (p39 of 77) n and the subjects of the Russian Federation the federal bodies of executive po wer and bodies of executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation shall form the single system of executive power in the Russian Federation. Article 78. 1. To exercise their powers, the federal bodies of executive power may set up their own territorial structures and appoint respect ive officials. 2. By agreement with organs of executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation, the federal organs of executive power may delegate t o them part of the ir powers provided this does not contravene the Constitution of the Russian Federation or federal laws. 3. By agreement with the federal organs of executive power, organs of executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation may delegate part of their powers to them. 4. The President of the Russian Federation and the government of the Russian Federation shall, under the Constitution of the Russian Federation, exercise the authority of federal state power throughout the territory of the R ussian Federation. Russian Constitution (p40 of 77) Article 79. The Russian Federation may participate in inter-state association s and delegate some of its powers to them in accordance with international agreements if this does not restrict human or civil rights and liberties or contravene the fundamentals of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation.