SECTION ONE Chapter 1. Fundamentals of the Constitutional System

LAST UPDATE: 03/15/94

CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AS APPROVED BY RF PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AND SUBMITTED TO NATIONAL REFERENDUM IN DECEMBER 1993

Article 1.  The Russian Federation -- Russia shall be a
democratic federal rule-of-law state with the republican form of government.  T
he names "Russian Federation" and "Russia" shall be equivalent.

Article 2.  Man, his rights and freedoms shall be the supreme
value. It shall be a duty of the state to recognize, respect and
protect the rights and liberties of man and citizen.

Article 3.  1. The multinational people of the Russian Federation
shall be the vehicle of sovereignty and the only source of power in the
Russian Federation.
2. The people of the Russian Federation shall exercise their
power directly, and also through organs of state power and local self-governmen
t.
                                                Russian Constitution (p3 of 77)
3. The referendum and free elections shall be the supreme direct manifestation
of the power of the people.  4. No one may arrogate to oneself power in the Rus
sian Federation. Seizure of power or appropriation of power authorization shall
 be prosecuted under federal law.

Article 4.  1. The sovereignty of the Russian Federation shall apply to its entire territory.
2. The Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws shall have supre
macy throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation.
3. The Russian Federation shall ensure the integrity and inviolability of its t
erritory.

 Article 5.  1. The Russian Federation shall
consist of republics, territories, regions, federal cities, an
autonomous region and autonomous areas, which shall be equal subjects of the Ru
ssian Federation.
2. The republic (state) shall have its own constitution and
legislation. A territory, region, federal city, autonomous region and autonomou
s area shall have its own charter and legislation
                                                Russian Constitution (p4 of 77)
3. The federated structure of the Russian Federation shall be based on its stat
e integrity, the uniform system of state power, delimitation of scopes of autho
rity and powers between the bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and
 the bodies of sta

tepower of the subjects of the Russian Federation, equality and self-determination of the peoples in the Russian Federation.
4. All the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be equal among themselves in relations with the Federal bodies of state power.

Article 6.  1. Citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be
acquired and terminated in accordance with the Federal law, and
shall be one and equal irrespective of the grounds on which it has been acquired.
2. Every citizen of the Russian Federation shall have all the rights and
liberties on its territory and bear equal duties, stipulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
3. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be stripped of
citizenship or of the right to change it.

 Article 7.  1. The Russian Federation shall be a social state,
                                                Russian Constitution (p5 of 77)
whose policies shall be aimed at creating conditions which ensure a dignified life and free development of man.
2. The Russian Federation shall protect the work and health of its people,
establish a guaranteed minimum wage, provide state support for family,
motherhood, fatherhood and childhood, and also for the disabled and for
elderly citizens, develop a system of social services and establish government
pensions, benefits and other social security guarantees.

Article 8.  1. Unity of economic space, free movement of goods,
services and financial resources, support for competition and freedom of any economic activity shall be guaranteed in the Russian Federation.
2. Private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership shall be recognized and shall enjoy equal protection in the Russian Federation.

Article 9.  1. The land and other natural resources shall be used
and protected in the Russian Federation as the basis of the life
and activity of the peoples living on their respective territories.
2.The land and other natural resources may be in private, state municipal and other forms of ownership.

Article 10.  State power in the Russian Federation
                                                Russian Constitution (p6 of 77)
shall be exercised on the basis of the separation of the
legislative, executive and judiciary branches. The bodies of legislative, executive and judiciary powers shall be independent.

Article 11.  1. State power in the Russian Federation shall be
exercised by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal
Assembly (Council of the Federation and State Duma), the
government of the Russian Federation and courts of the Russian
Federation.
2. State power in the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be exercised by
the organs of state authority formed by them.
3. The scopes of authority and powers of the bodies of state authority of the Russian Federation and the bodies of state authority
of the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be delimited
under this Constitution, Federal and other Treaties on the delimitation of
scopes of authority and powers.

Article 12.  Local self-government shall be recognized
and guaranteed in the Russian Federation. Local self-government
shall operate independently within the bounds of its authority. The bodies of local self-government shall not be part of the state power bodies.
                                                Russian Constitution (p7 of 77)

Article 13.  1.Ideological plurality shall be recognized in the
Russian Federation.
2. No ideology may be instituted as a state-sponsored or
mandatory ideology.
3. Political plurality and the multi-party system shall be
recognized in the Russian Federation.
4. Public associations shall be equal before the law.
5. The establishment and the activities of public associations,
whose aims and actions are directed at forcible alteration of the fundamentals
of constitutional governance and violation of the integrity of the Russian Federation and undermining of the security of the state, the
forming of armed units, the incitement of social, racial, national and religious strife shall be prohibited.

 Article 14.  1. The Russian Federation shall be a secular state.
No religion may be instituted as state-sponsored or mandatory
religion.
2. Religious associations shall be separated from the state, and
shall be equal before the law.

                                                Russian Constitution (p8 of 77)
 Article 15.  1.The Constitution of the Russian Federation shall
have supreme legal force and direct effect, and shall be applicable throughout
the entire territory of the Russian Federation. Laws and other
legal acts adopted by the Russian Federation may not contravene the
Constitution of the Russian Federation.
2. Organs of state power and local self-government, officials, citizens and the
ir associations must comply with the laws and the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
3. The laws shall be officially published. Unpublished laws shall not be applic
able. No regulatory legal act affecting the rights, liberties or duties of the
human being and citizen may apply unless it has been published officially for general knowledge.


4. The commonly recognized principles and norms of the international law
and the international treaties of the Russian Federation shall be a
component part of its legal system. If an international treaty of the Russian Federation stipulates other rules than those stipulated by the law, the rules of
 the international treaty shall apply.

Article 16.  1. The provisions of the present Chapter of the
                                                Russian Constitution (p9 of 77)
Constitution shall be the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and may not be changed except as provided for in this Constitutio
n.
2. No other provisions of this Constitution may contravene the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation.