"Back to the Future"- that is the symbolic motto of the first International Conference held in 1988 on Vacuum Microwave Electronics (VME). The organizers of the conference emphasized that in their opinion we witness. The opening of the new era of miniature vacuum electronic devices and self-regulating (autonomous) emission vacuum integrated circuits. What are the sources and peculiarities of the new scientific trend in physical electronics? Why has autoelectronics emission so much significance for VME? How to make devices and components with geomagnetic microdimensions (with nanometric tolerance for these dimensions)? What is VME for?
The main concepts of the nonlinear dynamics, namely, oscillations and waves, instability and nonlinearity, chaos and structures are presented. The explanation of above concepts is carried out using the examples from different fields of natural sciences. The examples of using of nonlinear dynamics ideas in the social sciences are given. The prime objective of this lecture is to show that the nonlinear dynamics, as a new scientific would view, makes it possible to develop the modern knowledge of the world around.
Over more than two hundred years, water was a unique medium of chemical reactions proceeding. Nonaqueous media, witch influence on a rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions, was revealed as early as the end of the last century, had come under intensively use in chemistry only since the second half of the present century. Along with nonaqueous media, homogeneous and heterogeneous organoaqueous solutions had gained wide acceptance in chemistry. Partial or total replacement of water by organic solvent allowed one to study more detailed mechanisms of many chemical reactions and expand the fields of many practical applications.
Alongside this line of inquiry related to regulating the macromedium properties in chemistry, in 70th another one began to form based on the use of different types of micro-heterogeneous systems. They were used initially as a models of medium in the vicinity of enzyme active centres in living biosystems, however, in the sufficiently short run the investigation of chemical reactions in super- and supra-molecular microheterogenous systems had constituted a branch in its own right. This methodology turned chemists again to water systems that are ecological and allow to proceed the chemical reactions of "soft biomimetical" conditions. The examples of the media are micelles, microemulsions, vesicles, lyposomes, cyclodextrins and other super- and supra-molecular microheterogenous water systems.