Digest for 95-08-11

                          Table of Contents

WHAT'S NEW . . .

#01-14 August 95  New issue of Ukrainian Weekly from Ukraine Ukraine FAQ 
                  Plus site  

#02-14 August 95  Stoli Central WWW site   

#03-14 August 95  Homegrown Home Pages


#01-14 August 95  Sender:  pveragou@tinet.ch (Pietro Veragouth)
                  Subject: Internet in Almaty, Kazakhstan   

#02-14 August 95  Sender:   Olga D. Govorova (govorova@gum.quorus.e-burg.su)

#03-14 August 95  Sender:  Center for Civil Society International 
                  Subject: music scene in the Baltic states     

#04-14 August 95  Sender:  irina melyushina (melyushi@leland.Stanford.EDU)
                  Subject: Ecology Center in Vologda region seeks partner 
                           for projects     

#05-14 August 95  Sender:  Eric Johnson (eric@SOVAM.COM)
                  Subject: smartlink     

#06-14 August 95  Sender:  Simon Streltsov (simon1@cgl.bu.edu)
                  Subject: INFO-RUSS: immigration info   

#07-14 August 95  Sender:  Kyle Hafar (hafar@u.washington.edu)
                  Subject: REQ. FOR INPUT:Electronic texts 
                           (x-post from H-RUSSIA)   
#08-14 August 95  Sender:  Prof. Nicolai N. Petro (KOLYA@URIACC.URI.EDU)
                  Subject: The Rebirth of Russian Democracy:  An 
                           Interpretation of Political Culture   

#09-14 August 95  Sender:  kedzie@rand.org (Chris Kedzie)
                  Subject: jobs with Ford Fdn. (fwd)   
#10-14 August 95  Sender:  kedzie@rand.org (Chris Kedzie)
                  Subject: Job Opening: IREX/Almaty

#11-14 August 95  Sender:  mac@MAINE.maine.edu (Dennis McConnell - 
                           Univ. of Maine, USA)
                  Subject: Project HOPE Medical Educational Advisor - Moscow

#12-14 August 95  Sender:  mac@MAINE.maine.edu (Dennis McConnell - 
                           Univ. of Maine, USA)
                  Subject: Program in Economic Policy Management

#13-14 August 95  Sender:  Ron Graham (ECAXRON@ARIEL.LERC.NASA.GOV)
                  Subject: On working with your translator
APPENDIX:        LISTSERV address & basic procedures


WHAT'S NEW . . .

*  Bohdan Peter Rekshynskyj has informed us that the latest preview of the 
   Ukrainian Weekly is now available on the Ukraine FAQ Plus site.  
   This is an regular feature each week.  Bohdan would like 
   everybody, as always, to feel free to email them at faq@tryzub.com with 
   comments and/or contributions.  This page can be accessed from our More 
   Information Resources page.


*  Stoli Central(/A) is a produced by Stolichnaya Vodka with 
   recipes for different vodka based cocktails, the opportunity to be a 
   bartendar and have your drink published on the Internet, and to "travel 
   the world". But in addition to all of the "fun", it also includes Stoli's 
   Russian Outpost which has 62 links to "all things Russian".  This can 
   be accessed from the Cuisine section of our Life page.
      http://www.stoli.com/  - and -  http://www.stoli.com/fadv/russia.html

*  We have added 4 new home pages to the Homegrown Home Page section of 
   our Life Page.  They are:
       Mai Ivanych Muxin
       Simon Streltsov
       Igor Chudov
       Alexander Artsyukhovich    


Please continue to send your e-mail to friends@solar.rtd.utk.edu.

** 001 **********************************************************************

Sender:  pveragou@tinet.ch (Pietro Veragouth)
Subject: Internet in Almaty, Kazakhstan


Does someone know about Internet providers in Almaty, Kazakhstan?

Thanks for your help.

S. Toscano
** 002 **********************************************************************

Sender:   Olga D. Govorova (govorova@gum.quorus.e-burg.su)

Dear Friends,

does anybody know how to find an address of the American Publishing
House McGraw Hill? The university I represent as a rector's assistant
needs any info (land address, e-mail, fax or/and phone number).

Any help would be appreciated. Please feel free at my e-mail address:

Thanks in advance.

Best regards,

Olga Govorova
Liberal Arts University
** 003 **********************************************************************

Sender:  Center for Civil Society International (ccsi@u.washington.edu)
Subject: music scene in the Baltic states

The message below is from John Hammink.  Please respond directly to him at:


My name is John Hammink and I'm a Linguistics Graduate from Eastern
Michigan University.  I'm also a musician (with 4 solo recordings) and I
have the very good fortune of playing with a rock band, The Atomic
Numbers, that has recently made some major label headway.  I'll be going
to the Netherlands in two weeks to push the latest recording and jam with
some of the street music bands in Amsterdam.  If there is another
workcamp next year in Tallinn like the A.I.D.S. performance this summer,
I would like to go.

For the past few years I've gained a lot of interest in the Baltic States
and I've become really intrigued by the notion of travelling there to
produce and record some of the local musicians/bands.  I already have
solid ideas about how to work out the logistics of the trip: getting
there, finding and organizing the musicians, what kind of portable
recording equipment to bring, even how to round up some inexpensive
transportation and organize a tour.  What I'm less certain about is how
to "float" financially, i.e. cover living expenses, while I'm there.

Since I have experience as a teacher and tutor of English, that seems
like that's the most logical way to cover bread, turnips and rent for an
extended period of time while putting things together.  (Of course, there
are the performances themselves, but at least in the local context, one
could expect to find such an income often unreliable!)  Also, of course,
teaching is a great way to get the word out.

I know that one lead is the American Council of Teachers of Russian.  As
teaching in these countries goes, what other leads can I explore?  And
most importantly, what can all of you tell me what I ought to know about
the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian music scenes?  And what about some
possible venues (both in those countries and in the U.S.)?

I've been to Tallinn only once as a street singer and loved it!  As you
can tell, I'm still in the brainstorming stage, so any information is
good information.  You can e-mail me at denning@emunix.emich.edu or write
me personally at 631 North Adams Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48197, USA.  My
home phone is (313) 484-4965.

I'll be waiting to hear from you.
** 004 **********************************************************************

Sender:  irina melyushina (melyushi@leland.Stanford.EDU)
Subject: Ecology Center in Vologda region seeks partner for projects

Over the last years, my library (Vologda Regional Library, the
main library in the Vologda Region, that is situated not far from Moscow
and not far from Sankt- Petersburg) has been cooperating with the Ecology
and Natural Resources Committee of the Regional Government. The Federal
Government of the Vologda Region established the Government Program on
Natural Resources Preservation.

The Library and the Committee are carrying out a joint project on
disseminating information on natural resources preservation. Every year
the Library and the Committee organize a number of special events. They

*       the International Earth Day Exhibition in the Library;

*       the river-boat trip "Save and Preserve" along the Sukhona river
        dedicated to the preservation of the river basin;

*       public readings"The history of ancient family manors of the Volgda
        Province"; and

*       some ecological training programs for librarians in the Region.

Today, the Library holdings include books and periodicals
primarily in Russian. To better meet patron's needs, the Library acquires
filmstrips, audio and video cassettes, CD-ROMs, microfiches,microfilms,
ecology video games and computer games, foreign books (basically
directories and encyclopedias) and foreign periodicals on ecology
subjects. Since theese days the Internet provides access to catalogs of
the largest libraries all over of the world, to the largest ecology
agency's databases and to information about various environments, the
best ecology scientific centers, famous National Parks, and a olot of
other important and useful information concerning ecology, it is
necessary for my Library to have Internet access(unfortunately, it has no

Therefore my Library are looking for a partner. It might be any
Environmental Protection Agency with a library or Information Center or
any special environmental library or any other institutions might be
interested in cooperation with my Library. One of the forms of our future
cooperation can be writing grant proposals for joint project.

Please, contact me at the following address:

Irina Melyushina
ul. M. Ulianovoi, 1
Vologda Regional Library
Vologda, Russia 160000
phone: (81722)2-40-64

or till 24th of August my e-mail address because my leaving for Russia
fairly soon.

** 005 **********************************************************************

Sender:  Eric Johnson (eric@SOVAM.COM)
Subject: smartlink


You may know all about this (I'm in Moscow so I can't easily read all Rustex
like I used to), but:

We recently needed to produce some text in Moscow on IBMs (Word for Windows)
and e-mail it to our Macs in California (Word for Mac) for typsetting. This
we accomplished by a converter which came with some very good-looking fonts
we bought from a US firm, SmartLink. It worked well. Smartlink, judging by
their brochure, sells all the parts needed for whatever you need to do in
Russian on Macs and IBMs:
 scanning & OCR (MacTiger for Mac, CuneiForm for IBM)
 fonts (Beta for DOS, Dialect for Mac, ParaWin for Win)
 converting (Converter for Mac)
 spell-checking (Propis, WinOrfo, Unispell for Mac)
 translating (Stylus for Win)
 electronic dictionary (Context for Win)

They appear to have educational software too, e.g. on CD-ROM.

They're at 800 256-4814 (+1 714 552-1599). And they provided the tech support
we needed at +1 714 552-1599. They list a WWW page too:

Best, Eric

** 006 **********************************************************************

Sender:  Simon Streltsov (simon1@cgl.bu.edu)
Subject: INFO-RUSS: immigration info

Here is a new web site with 
US immigration laws and news:

The Internet Immigration Law Center 

it has 

     Main Menu Immigration Law Topics and Information 
     Immigration News Bulletins (Under Construction) 
     Pointers to Other Internet Immigration Law Resources (Under Construction) 

Simcha Streltsov                             to subscribe send
Moderator of Russian-Jews List               sub russian-jews (fullname)
simcha@shamash.nysernet.org                  to listproc@shamash.nysernet.org
archives via WWW:    gopher://shamash.nysernet.org:70/hh/lists/russian-jews

home page: http://conx.bu.edu/~simon1

** 007 **********************************************************************

Sender:  Kyle Hafar (hafar@u.washington.edu)
Subject: REQ. FOR INPUT:Electronic texts (x-post from H-RUSSIA)

Date: Mon, 07 Aug 1995 14:34:38 -0500 (CDT)
)From: Scott Gillies (gillies@alexia.lis.uiuc.edu)

Hello Group,

I am doing some research in preparation for a AAASS roundtable
discussion this fall on "Access and Archiving of Electronic Resources
for Slavic and East European Studies."

My interest is in the preservation of electronic text, and by
"preservation" I mean the dependability, connectability, and
continuity of accessability to electronic sources in the field.

In order to acquire some context for the study, I would like to know
which resources users in the field use the most or depend on the most.
I am interested in which _types_ of sources are the most used
(listservs, electronic journals, online databases, etc.) as well as
which specific resources seem to be the most important for various

There is relatively little literature available on preservation of
electronic text, and practically none in the Slavic and East European
field specifically, so your responses would be very valuable to me.

Thanks in advance,

Scott Gillies
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

** 008 **********************************************************************

Sender:  Prof. Nicolai N. Petro (KOLYA@URIACC.URI.EDU)
Subject: The Rebirth of Russian Democracy:  An Interpretation of Political 

     I am posting the following description of my new book, prepared by the
press, in the hope of provoking a discussion of its thesis and perhaps learning
the whereabouts of new colleagues who share my interests, though I certainly
woudn't mind selling a few more copies either.

 *The Rebirth of Russian Democracy:  An Interpretation of Political Culture*
                        by Nicolai N. Petro
              (Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1995)

                  ISBN 0-674-75001-2  (PETREB)  $39.95

     How could the West have better prepared for the fall of communism and
gained a clearer picture of Russia's new political landscape?  By cultivating
an awareness, Nicolai Petro argues, of the deep democratic aspirations of the
Russian people since Muscovite times.  Petro traces the long history of those
aspirations, recovering for us an understanding crucial to our formulation of
successful foreign policy toward Russia.

     Expanding the traditional definition of political culture from single
thread to continuous historical tapestry, Petro illuminates a reality
previously lost to even the most rigorous Sovietology:  the fragility of
communism.  He portrays an abiding "alternative political culture" that tells
us Russia indeed possesses a democratic tradition on which its contemporary
democracy rests.

     Petro's analysis includes many surprising and incisive observations.  In
a look at the Russian Orthodox Church, he details its long history of support
for opposition sentiment during both Tsarist and Soviet times and its support
for democracy today.  He also explores the character and power of contemporary
Russian nationalism and traces its origins to the neo-Slavophile national
identity that took its shape as a challenge to Bolshevik oppression.
Delineating Russia's postcommunist political parties, the author reveals their
roots in prerevolutionary times and explains how this continuity makes Russian
political aspirations far more predictable than is commonly assumed.

     Awakening us to Russia's historical involvement in the democratic quest
that lies at the heart of Western values, Petro opens a path for a more
meaningful, more productive understanding of modern Russia.

     To order, please contact Harvard University Press at:

           (800) 448-2242, toll free in the US & Canada

           by fax toll free in the US and Canada  (800) 962-4983

           by fax toll free from other countries  (800) 495-8924

           by e-mail contact  jco@hup.mhs.harvard.edu

           via the World Wide Web go to:

                                      Nicolai N. Petro
                                      Associate Professor

     _/      _/   _/_/_/    _/_/_/ |  Department of Political Science
    _/      _/   _/    _/    _/    |  The University of Rhode Island   (USA)
   _/      _/   _/_/_/      _/     |  Washburn Hall, Kingston, RI 02881-0817
   _/     _/   _/   _/     _/      |  Office: 401-792-2183;  Fax: 401-792-4072
    _/_/_/    _/     _/ _/_/_/     |  http://www.uri.edu  (under construction)

** 009 **********************************************************************

Sender:  kedzie@rand.org (Chris Kedzie)
Subject: jobs with Ford Fdn. (fwd)

)        Program Officer for Ford Foundation in Moscow
)The Ford Foundation is still looking to fill for its Russia and
)Eastern Europe Program.  Note that the Foundation advertised these
)positions earlier this year along with the position of the head of the
)new Moscow field office it is opening.  They have hired Dr. Mary McAuley
)of Oxford U. to head the office.   The summary information for the
)positions of Program Officer and Assistant Program Officer is:
)        "Our search for two program officers for the Moscow field office
)is still in progress...we are seeking candidates who are thoroughly
)knowledgeable about the current political, economic, and social
)conditions of Russia, and who have significant training in the two
)principal areas of our programmatic interest:  economic and soical
)policy and political and legal reform.  Familiarity with institutions of
)higher learning in the social sciences and other research, policy, and
)advocacy institutions would be an important asset.  Fluency in Russian is
)essential, as is an interest in working in a field setting for a period
)of at least three years.  While grantmaking experience would be useful,
)we are primarily interested in specialists with a command of substantive
)program interests and activities.."
)        You may fax nominations or suggestions to Shepard Forman, Director,
)at 212-856-9330; candidates may mail or fax a cv and brief writing
)sample to
)        Sheila C. Gordon
)        Consulting Manager of Employment
)        Human Resources
)        The Ford Foundation
)        320 East 43rd Street
)        New York, New York 10017
)        fax (212)-687-9509
)The formal description of job responsibilities is:
)To develop and implement a grantmaking program on economic and social
)policy reforms as part of the transition from a command economy in
)Russia.  Priorities include the development of innovative solutions to
)social policy problems; building independent policy analysis capacity on
)economic and social issues; and strengthening the capacity of
)institutions of local governance in the economic and social policy
)areas.  Position also involves shared grantmaking responsibility, in
)collaboration with other program staff, for work to strengthen research
)and teaching in the social sciences and to advance the status of women.
)As needed, incumbent may be called upon to backstop Foundation
)grantmaking in Eastern Europe.
)        Required qualifications:  Advanced degree or extensive experience
)in geographic and substantive program areas; recent sustained work
)experience in Russia and familiarity with Eastern Europe; fluency in
)Russian; excellent analytical, organizational and communication skills.
)        Preferred qualifications:  Training in economic and social policy
)and familiarity with research and policy institutions as well as
)non-governmental organizations in Russia.
)        Note:  Position would initially be New York-based, with
)relocation to Moscow currently anticipated for October 1995.

** 010 **********************************************************************

Sender:  kedzie@rand.org (Chris Kedzie)
Subject: Job Opening: IREX/Almaty

)On-Site Representative
)The International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX) seeks
)a US citizen to serve as Program Officer in Almaty,
)Kazakhstan. IREX Program Officers are responsible for
)promoting ongoing research, policy, and professional
)training programs as well as monitoring opportunities for
)new cooperative activities in the region.
)Administrative duties include managing all aspects of the
)IREX office and Educational Advising Center, as well as
)overseeing and training local staff. Principle IREX field
)office objectives include: administering fellowship
)programs for Kazakh scholars to study/conduct research
)in the United States; organizing the on-site elements of
)professional training programs for critical political, governmental,
)nonprofit, media, and entrepreneurial cadres in Kazakhstan;
)providing field access for American specialists to
)professional networks and research resources in the region;
)and implementating other IREX initiatives in Central Asia.
)IREX field staff work closely with local higher education,
)government, media  and policy establishments and with
)officials of the US Embassy as well as other nongovernmental
)organizations and corporations operating in the area.
)QUALIFICATIONS:  Applicants for this position should have
)at least a bachelor's degree in a relevant discipline and
)possess strong Russian-language competency.  Excellent
)organizational skills and administrative experience are
)essential.  Applicants should be adept with computers and
)relevant software (word processing, dbase, spreadsheets)
)and electronic mail communication.
)Preference will be given to candidates with professional
)experience in Central Asia and who have fluency in Kazakh
)or other languages of the Central Asian region.
)The International Research & Exchanges Board is a private,
)nonprofit organization promoting American collaboration
)with the academic, policy and professional communities of the
)NIS, Central and Eastern Europe, and Mongolia.   IREX
)currently has ten representations in Eurasia: Moscow,
)Almaty, Bishkek, Erevan, Irkutsk, Kyiv, Rostov-on-Don,
)Tashkent, Tbilisi, and Vladivostok.
)Send cover letter and resume to IREX/KGK, 1616 H Street,
)Washington, DC 20006.  Applications may sent via e-mail, as ASCII
)text or Microsoft Word files, to kkiesel@irex.org.  No phone calls,
)Review of applications will begin immediately and continue
)until the position is filled.
)An Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity Employer

** 011 **********************************************************************

Sender:  mac@MAINE.maine.edu (Dennis McConnell - Univ. of Maine, USA)
Subject: Project HOPE Medical Educational Advisor - Moscow

I am forwarding the appended announcement to assist Project  HOPE
in  their search for medical personnel with interests in  Russia.
Please  feel free to forward the announcement to interested  col-
leagues. If you have questions about the position, please contact
the e-mail address in the announcement.
                          PROJECT HOPE
Project  HOPE, an international health care  education  organiza-
tion,  is  accepting  applications for the  position  of  Medical
Education  Advisor to the Moscow State University and the  Moscow
Burn  Education  programs.

The seven-month salaried assignment will be based in Moscow.  The
selected  candidate will serve as primary liaison to the  Medical
School at Moscow State University, to advise on curriculum devel-
opment and help the Medical School develop contacts with institu-
tions  in the West.  Also, in conjunction with the  Burn  Program
Coordinator,  plan, direct and participate in the development  of
the  Pediatric  Burn Center at Children's Hospital  9,  providing
medical  leadership and technical expertise to the  Burn  program

Interested individual should contact:

              Sue Tardino, International Recruiter
                          Project HOPE
                Health Sciences Education Center
                       Millwood, VA 22646
                       Tel: 1-800-544-4673
                       Fax: 1-703-837-1813
                    E-Mail: hope1@netcom.com.

** 012 **********************************************************************

Sender:  mac@MAINE.maine.edu (Dennis McConnell - Univ. of Maine, USA)
Subject: Program in Economic Policy Management

Members of the list may be interested in the program outlined  in
the  following  announcement.  Please feel free  to  forward  the
announcement  to  other interested/qualified  canidates  you  may
know.  Please  direct questions regarding details to  the  e-mail
address  provided  in  the announcement. I  am  cross-posting  to
several  lists,  so  let me apologize in  advance  for  duplicate
announcements some of you may receive.
                      Jointly Sponsored by
     Columbia University and Economic Development Institute
Columbia  University and the Economic Development Institute  have
announced  the fifth year of the Program in Economic Policy  Man-
agement  for  graduate  training in the theory  and  practice  of
economic policy making.  This program is designed to provide mid-
career  policy  makers of demonstrated achievement  and  superior
promise with the skills required to design and implement economic
policy effectively, with a strong emphasis on policy issues faced
by  developing  and formerly socialist  economies.  The  18-month
Program accommodates the schedule of promising mid-career  policy
makers  and  culminates  in a Master's  Degree  in  International
Affairs from Columbia University.

The  academic component of the Program is a cooperative  endeavor
of  Columbia  University's  School of  International  and  Public
Affairs,  Graduate School of Business, and Department of  Econom-
ics. The Department of Economics will provide academic leadership
of  the Program. The World Bank will support the Program by  pro-
viding  full financial support for 25 students,  guest  lecturers
for courses offered by the Program, and student internships.

The 1996-97 Program begins in June 1996. Applications for  admis-
sion to the Program should be received by January 1, 1996. Poten-
tial  applicants  to the Program should arrange to take  the  GRE
and, if appropriate, the TOEFL exams as soon as possible.

For application forms and additional information, please contact:

        Director - Program in Economic Policy Management
               1034 International Affairs Building
                       Columbia University
                   New York, NY 10027, U.S.A.
                      Tel: +1-212-854-6982
                      Fax: +1-212-854-5935
              E-Mail: pepm@mahler.econ.columbia.edu

** 013 **********************************************************************

Subject: On working with your translator

The enclosed article came from a project meeting here, and I thought
some of you might find the topic of industrial translation interesting.


The single topic of discussion at the 7/20/95 RoundTable dealt 
with Improving Translation & Interpretation -- What we all can 
do.  Joseph Feldman led the discussion by sharing his 
observations and insights.  What follows is a synopsis of the key 
points raised.  Everyone is encouraged to take advantage of these 
insights -- they can increase your effectiveness over the long 

Joseph spoke about Russian (=) English interpretation, translation, 
and cultural differences.

Opening Remarks

Joseph's impression is that we are generally utilizing our 
telecons with RSC-Energia well.  However, we should consider 
videocons more often.  He cited instances recently where we 
attempted to discuss visual information, e.g., drawings, via 
telecon whereas videocon would have been more efficient. 

Verbal Interpretation

-    Provide agendas five (5) days in advance.  Although this 
     sounds like a lot, 2 or 3 days may be needed for translation 
     during periods of peak load and Energia should receive the 
     fax at least 2 days prior to the telecon/videocon to allow 
     for internal distribution, coordination, preparation, etc. 
     at RSC.  Include U.S. participants with this info -- It will 
     help them bring the right counterparts to the table.

-    Bring both English and Russian versions of any material to 
     the conference -- don't rely on the interpreter -- they 
     don't always have the time.  Fax both language versions 
     whenever possible -- This allows the receiving party to 
     check the translation if in doubt.

-    Speak in sound bites.  Interpreters are only human too! -- 
     don't expect them to remember and accurately translate more 
     than 2 sentences at a time as a guideline, especially when 
     numbers, formula, etc. are involved.  Joseph noted (1) that 
     telecons are more difficult than face-to-face meetings, and 
     (2) the proficiency level of interpreters varies.

-    Watch for acronyms.  Except for extremely common 
     acronyms/abbreviations, give the expanded meaning the first 
     time you use them in any conversation.  It takes time, & 
     breaks the flow of a conversation, if the interpreter must 
     stop and ask for an explanation of what "ABC" means.  

-    Ad-hoc PERSONAL calls are encouraged!  Got a quick question 
     for your Russian counterpart?  Ask Joseph or Natalie to help 
     you with a short, impromptu call.  It's not always necessary 
     to wait for a scheduled telecon.  If this option is not 
     abused, it can help build your working relationship.

Written Translations

-    Write clearly in English if you want a decent translation.  
     A translator only translates what he/she can understand.  
     The Russian saying is "Hurry slowly" (the American 
     equivalent is probably "Haste makes waste").  Take time to 
     write the original in English concisely and you'll more than 
     make up the time by avoiding translation errors or confusing 
     your counterpart.

-    Provide a "Glossary of Terms" with all your written 
     documentation.  Avoid acronyms with multiple meanings in 
     your language.  (Perhaps this should be policy for project 

-    Re-read material for clarity before you submit it for 
     translation to ensure that there is only one meaning or 
     interpretation in English.  CONSCIOUSLY write for 
     translation.  (Think of writing for a colleague, but one who 
     is NOT familiar with your work.  He/she should be able to 
     easily understand it.)  

-    Designate one person to ensure consistency throughout a 
     document with multiple authors.

-    Avoid synonyms.  Always call the same thing by the same name 
     -- at least within the same document.  E.g., A strut is a 
     channel is a leg is a beam?  A PGS mass-stiffness simulator 
     is a mockup is a PGS#3 is a N3?

-    Number paragraphs.  We generally do this & it facilitates 
     telecons & other discussions.

Cultural Observations

-    Think about how the Russians may view a meeting.  E.g., 
     official meeting?  Does contract payment hinge on the 
     outcome? etc.

-    Russian view of U.S. engineering methods:  Sophisticated 
     methods are often overkill and unnecessary.  Russian 
     approach is to use larger margins.  Younger Russians may be 
     more open to US approach.

-    Russian team is older -- This age difference is partially 
     responsible for different, sometimes skeptical, attitudes 
     towards newer techniques & methods (analogy: some of the 
     best senior engineers in the US are not completely 
     comfortable with computer simulations).  Another response 
     elicited may be envy as the Russian aerospace industry is 
     having a hard time attracting & keeping young talent.

-    Coordination on the Russian side sometimes suffers from 
     internal politics.  Each organization/department often feels 

     the need to "protect" itself by controlling information.  If 
     your counterpart gives you "bad" information, it's probably 
     not intentional -- he may have gotten it (or not) from his 
     colleague in a different department.

-    Russian organization is less democratic than US 
     organizations.  Consider your counterpart's position in his 
     organization (if you can find that out) and his relationship 
     to his superior.  Not always easy to assess, but Joseph or 
     Marton Forkosh can sometimes offer insights.

-    Remember that the culture was recently repressively 
     authoritarian and not all has changed.  Think about this as 
     you try to get protocols, documents, etc. signed.

-    Try to be polite, not demanding.  Given their recent decline 
     in global politics from superpower status, they are 
     especially sensitive to Americans! talking down to them.  Be 
     courteous, not blunt, and you'll get a better response.  [My 
     note:  this does not mean you can't take a firm position!  
     being polite does not mean being "weak"]  Joseph noted that 
     blunt words in English, when literally translated, may come 
     across as downright RUDE in Russian.  Think about this 
     especially when working with a new translator who may 
     translate more literally than you really want.

-    BARGAIN!  Bargaining is common, even daily event in the life 
     of a Russian.  It's "in their blood".  Be prepared and 
     expect to bargain with your counterpart.  Give and take, 
     even if only symbolic, is a natural expectation of your 
     counterpart.  It's not necessarily an adversarial thing, 
     either -- it can be a friendly exchange.  Don't disappoint 


It was felt that these insights are very valuable & those present 
urged that they be shared with the entire team.  Since this 
discussion was based on our interfaces with Russia, as opposed to 
another groups, it was very pertinent.


----------------------- END FRIENDS August 14, 1995 -------------------------


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