AF flight 9. World's first supersonic flight in level or climbing flight was made by Capt. Charles E. Yeager (USAF) at Muroc, Calif., in a rocket-powered NACA-USAF research plane, Bell XS-1XS-1 # 1 attained mach 1.06 at 13,115 m, approximately 1126 kph. References: 49 , 97 .
Prototype of North America's B-64 Navaho, a X-10 ramjet guided missile, made its initial flight. References: 17 .
The first American four-stage rocket was launched by the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division of NACA's Langley Laboratory at Wallops Island. NACA's PARD four-stage, solid-fuel rocket obtained heat transfer data to Mach 10.4. References: 17 .
The Rocket and Satellite Research Panel, established in 1946 as the V-2 Upper Atmosphere Research Panel and renamed the Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel in 1948, together with the American Rocket Society proposed a national space flight program and a unified National Space Establishment. The mission of such an Establishment would be nonmilitary in nature, specifically excluding space weapons development and military operations in space. By 1959, this Establishment should have achieved an unmanned instrumented hard lunar landing and, by 1960, an unmanned instrumented lunar satellite and soft lunar landing. Manned circumnavigation of the moon with return to earth should have been accomplished by 1965 with a manned lunar landing mission taking place by 1968. Beginning in 1970, a permanent lunar base should be possible. References: 16 .
USAF and NACA reviewed preliminary studies dating from 1954 on a boost-glide research vehicle to follow the X-15; all studies were combined into a single plan which was accepted by the Air Force and later designated as Dyna-Soar. References: 17 .
The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Supply and Logistics invited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to submit nominations for materiel procurement urgency (commonly known as the DX priority rating). References: 483 .
Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. This was the Soviet Union's second attempt at a planetary probe. The upper stages and payload broke up on re-entry into the atmosphere. References: 5 , 64 , 65 , 118 , 296 .
In a letter to NASA Administrator James E. Webb, AC Spark Plug reported that the first Apollo guidance system completed acceptance testing and was shipped at 11:30 p.m. and arrived at Downey, California, early the following day. AC reported that in more than 2,000 hours of operation they had found the system to be "remarkably reliable, accurate and simple to operate." References: 16 .
Eagle-Picher Company completed qualification testing on the 25-amperehour reentry batteries for the CM. Shortly thereafter, Eagle-Picher received authorization from North American to proceed with design and development of the larger 40-ampere-hour batteries needed for the later Block I and all Block II spacecraft. References: 16 .
Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Returned early due to failure of spacecraft thermoregulation system; internal temperature rose to 43 degrees C. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 93 .
OGO 2 was a large observatory instrumented with 20 experiments designed to make simultaneous, correlative observations of aurora and airglow emissions, energetic particles, magnetic field variations, ionospheric properties, etc., especially over the polar areas. Soon after achieving orbit, difficulties in maintaining earth lock with horizon scanners caused exhaustion of attitude control gas by October 23, 1965, 10 days after launch. At this time, the spacecraft entered a spin mode (about 0.11 rpm) with a large coning angle about the previously vertical axis. Five experiments became useless when the satellite went into this spin mode. Six additional experiments were degraded by this loss of attitude control. By April 1966, both batteries had failed, so subsequent observations were limited to sunlit portions of the orbit. By December 1966, only eight experiments were operational, five of which were not degraded by the spin mode operation. By April 1967, the tape recorders had malfunctioned and only one third of the recorded data could be processed. Spacecraft power and periods of operational scheduling conflicts created six large data gaps so that data were observed on a total of about 306 days of the 2-yr, 18-day total span of observed satellite data to November 1, 1967. The spacecraft was shut down on November 1, 1967, with eight experiments still operational. It was reactivated for 2 weeks in February 1968 to operate the rubidium vapor magnetometer experiment. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
France - USSR communications link. Second communications satellite 'Molniya-1'. Television programme transmission and long-range, two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communications. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 64 .
Design materials for the 11F732 7K-S spacecraft were issued. In 1969 complete drawings were released for the OIS project including those for the spacecraft 7K-S, 7K-S-I, and 7K-S-II.
Payload included East European experiments to study solar UV, X-ray effects on upper atmosphere. Investigation of solar radiation and its effect on the atmosphere of the earth. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 99 , 116 .
The first of eight Thor/Burner IIA launches from Vandenberg AFB. References: 88 .
Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Maximum Altitude - 1512 km. References: 98 .
Soyuz 23 was to have docked with the Salyut 5 space station but its long-distance rendezvous system failed. It landed at night (October 16, 1976 17:46 GMT), in a snowstorm, in -20 deg C weather, on the surface of Lake Tengiz. The recovery crews did not find the capsule until the next morning, and were surprised to find the crew alive. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 32 , 33 .
Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite.
INPE experimental scientific satellite with a magnetometer, particle detectors and an atmospheric experiment. INPE reportedly lost contact with the satellite in mid-October.