Robert H. Goddard successfully operated a liquid oxygen and gasoline rocket motor on a testing frame, both fuel components being supplied by pumps installed on the rocket. References: 17 .
Gen. H. H. Arnold, Chief of Air Staff, directed and authorized emphasis on research, development, and procurement of guided missiles, as indicated by known German advances. References: 17 .
Nation's first center devoted to the research and development of rocket propulsion systems, founded at Cal Tech in 1936, reorganized and renamed the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). References: 17 .
Cosmic radiation, solar radiation research. Launched at 0947 local time. Reached 91 km.
Failure in first stage due to break in alcohol piping. V-2 reached 5 km, 390 m/s; WAC destroyed.
Temperature, winds research. Launched at 0245 local time. Reached 66 km.
Sodium emission research. Launched at 2230 local time. Reached 151 km.
Sodium emission research. Launched at 0557 local time. Reached 68 km.
Following Navy withdrawal from the Jupiter IRBM program, separate Army and Navy Ballistic Missile Committees were established under chairmanship of respective service secretaries. Navy withdrawal based on interest in solid-propellant Polaris as ship-based IRBM. References: 17 .
Council of Chief Designers Decree 'On course of work on the piloted spaceship' was issued. Council of Chief designers approved the Vostok manned space program, in combination with Zenit spy satellite program Korolev was authorised to proceed with development of a spacecraft to achieve manned flights at the earliest possible date. However the design would be such that the same spacecraft could be used to fulfil the military's unmanned photo reconnaissance satellite requirement. The military resisted, but Korolev won. This was formalised in a decree of 25 May 1959. References: 474 .
A contract was signed by the University of Manchester, Manchester, England, and the Air Force (AF 61(052)-168) for $21,509. Z. Kopal, principal investigator, was to provide topographical information on the lunar surface for production of accurate lunar maps. Additional Details: Contract for lunar mapping photography. References: 16 .
Prototype Goodrich full-pressure Mercury astronaut suits (modified Navy Mark IV) were delivered to NASA. Navy Air Crew Equipment Laboratory (NACEL) of Philadelphia fitted suits and indoctrinated the astronauts on their use. References: 17 .
Under arrangements of the AACB (Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board), NASA will utilize existing NASA tracking stations for initial Centaur development vehicles and switch to the Advent network (which is to be planned, funded, and constructed by DOD) when Centaur is operational, perhaps as early as the fourth of 10 development launchings of Centaur. References: 17 , 278 .
Immediately after cancellation of similar projects at Myasishchev and Tsybin bureaus, Chelomei's new bureau is assigned to build equivalent of US Dynasoar / Saint II. Winged manned spacecraft for interception, inspection, and destruction of US satellites up to 290 km altitude. Two man crew, 24 hour mission duration, large aft drag brakes. References: 83 .
The Space Task Group was formally redesignated the Manned Spacecraft Center, Robert R. Gilruth, Director. References: 16 .
An attempt was made to launch Mercury-Scout 1 (MS-1) into orbit with a communications package further to qualify the radar tracking of the Mercury global network prior to manned orbital flight. Shortly after lift-off, the launch vehicle developed erratic motions and attending high aerodynamic loads, and was destroyed by the Range Safety Officer after 43 seconds of flight. No further attempts were planned. The Mercury-Atlas 4 (MA-4) mission and the successful Mercury-Atlas 5 (MA-5), flown on November 29, 1961, disclosed that the network met all requirements. References: 483 .
A Thor IRBM was used to launch a Mk 4 Reentry Vehicle containing a 186 kg W-50 nuclear warhead of either 200 or 400 kilotons yield. The detonation occurred at an altitude of 98 km, 69 km SSW of Johnston Atoll, and resulted in dramatic aurora-like effects visible as far away as Hawaii. More notably, the explosion had a massive effect on the ionosphere which disrupted radio communications over the entire central Pacific for three hours.
At Khrushchev's decision Chelomei takes over Lavochkin's OKB-301 and Myasishchev's OKB-23. Lavochkin had built objects 205, 207, 400 (SA-1,2,5); Chelomei UR-96 ABM-1. References: 70 .
Nuclear Explosion in Semipalatinsk. References: 98 .
Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Sixty-one radio transmissions were held in which a large amount of data was collected. On March 21, 1963, when the spacecraft was at a distance of 106 million km communications ceased, possibly due to a malfunction in the spacecraft orientation system. Mars 1 closest approach to Mars occurred on June 19, 1963 at a distance of approximately 193,000 km, after which the spacecraft entered a heliocentric orbit. Announced mission: Prolonged exploration of outer space during flight to the planet Mars; establishment of inter-planetary radio communications; photgraphing of the planet Mars and subsquent radio-transmission to Earth of the photographs of the surface of Mars thus obtained. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 118 , 296 .
Titan II development flight N-25 was launched from the Atlantic Missile Range. It carried the oxidizer surge chamber and fuel accumulator kit intended to reduce the amplitude of longitudinal vibration which had characterized earlier flights. NASA regarded 0.25g as the maximum level tolerable in manned space flight; this flight achieved a level of 0.22g, the first to fall within acceptable limits. Although the kit had been tested on only one flight, Gemini Project Office had sufficient confidence in it to decide, on November 6, to procure several more such kits for subsequent installation in Gemini launch vehicles. Two later Titan II development flights (N-29 on December 12, 1963, and N-31 on January 15, 1964) and the flight of Gemini-Titan 1 confirmed the validity of this decision. The required kits for the remaining Gemini launch vehicles were then procured.
ASAT interceptor control and propulsion test. Launched by Korolev R-7 because Chelomei's own UR-200 was not yet available. Purpose - elaboration of system providing for the extensive manoeuvring of space apparatuses. Flight was considered a great success. Micro-engine fired 350 times and main stabilizing engine fired 300 times. Orbit given is final orbit after manoeuvres. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 272 .
Decree 'On lag of work on the N1-L3 and UR-500K-L1 programs' was issued. References: 474 .
Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. Second successful test of SpK small film return capsule planned for Yantar. SpK capsule FEU-170 No. 4L successfully recovered. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 69 .
Testing of methods for comprehensive study of the oceans and the surface of the earth, and testing of automatic gathering of scientific information from experimental sea and land stations. Launched under the INTERCOSMOS programme by the Soviet Union toget her with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 116 .
Began installation of auxiliary solar array. References: 66 .
Planned EOM-1/2 shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays.
European DBS and radio. Stationed at 19.29 deg E. TV distribution services to Western Europe and the Canary Islands under franchise from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Contracted and controlled by the private company formed in 1985 called Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES). This is the last in a series of 4 medium power satellites, and will act primarily as Astra 1B and 1C's backup. It will also carry four 12.5 Ghz BSS transponders that can be combined for HDTV. Spacecraft: HS-601 platform.3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels.1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. Payload: 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA 10.75-10.95 Ghz FSS (&12.5 Ghz BSS) down Ku-band European beams in 250 Mhz band adjacent (below) to Astra 1C, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range References: 2 , 5 , 6 .