Decree 'On establishment of NII-4' was issued. References: 474 .
Ionosphere research. Launched at 1148 local time. Reached 146.5 km.
Decree 'On adoption of the R-5M into armaments' was issued. Deployment of the missile began in 1956 in brigades of six launchers. Initially it took 30 hours to prepare the rocket for launch, but this was reduced to 5 to 6 hours after several years of service. References: 474 .
Robert O. Piland, Head of the STG Advanced Vehicle Team, and Stanley C. White of STG attended a meeting in Washington, D. C., sponsored by the NASA Office of Life Sciences Programs, to discuss radiation and its effect on manned space flight. Their research showed that it would be impracticable to shield against the inner Van Allen belt radiation but possible to shield against the outer belt with a moderate amount of protection. Additional Details: Radiation and its effect on manned space flight. References: 16 .
North American's Rocketdyne Division conducted the 1,000th test firing of the Saturn V's first-stage engine, the F-1. References: 16 .
Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On long-range military use of space in 1966-70' was issued. References: 474 .
Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On approval of the Almaz draft project' was issued. Chelomei's draft project showed the 11F71 Almaz station to consist of an 11F75 orbital block and an 11F74 VA landing apparatus (derived from the Apollo-type capsule he had designed for his LK-1 circumlunar spacecraft). Launch of the re-entry capsule with the cosmonauts would eliminate the need for the Soyuz 7K-TK ferry under development by Kozlov. References: 474 .
The draft project OIS 11F730 was issued jointly by TsKBEM and Filial 3 on 21 June 1968.
Draft project OIS 11F730, was issued by TsKBEM and filial 3 jointly. In the course of 1969 complete drawings were released for the OIS project including modules for the spacecraft 7K-S, 7K-S-I, and 7K-S-II.
Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On establishment of the State Commission for testing the Soyuz-T' was issued. A State Commission was formed to oversee the flight tests of the solo mission 7K-S. The draft design for 7K-ST space station transport version was completed in August 1974.
Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Delivery to the Salyut-7 orbital station of a mixed cargo with a total mass of 2,000 kg. Docked with Salyut 7 on 23 Jun 1985 02:54:00 GMT. Undocked on 15 Jul 1985 12:28:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Jul 1985 22:33:31 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.51 days. Total docked time 22.40 days. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 275 .
3rd generation, high resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resource tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 6 .
Stationed at 90 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes, continuation of work in the context of the 'Intercosmos' programme for the development of new frequency ranges and the creation of long-range systems of space c ommunications jointly with the Byelorussian SSR, GDR, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 111 , 274 .
Manned six crew. Carried Spacehab 1; retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft. Payloads: Spacehab 01, retrieval of European Retriev-able Carrier (EURECA) Satellite, Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT), Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP)-IV, Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), GAS bridge assembly with 12 getaway special payloads. Additional Details: STS-57. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .