Temperature, winds research. Launched at 2311 local time. Reached 66.8 km.
Test firing of a full-scale upper stage rocket under simulated altitude conditions was made in an engine test cell at the USAF's Arnold Engineering Development Center at Tullahoma, Tenn. References: 17 .
In a Project Horizon report, Wernher von Braun, then with the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, advanced a theory that he had conceived years earlier for using a booster's spent stage as a space station's basic structure. This later evolved into the 'wet stage' concept for the Skylab Program.
The Project Horizon Phase I report was completed. In it, a U.S. manned landing on the moon in 1965 was proposed, to be followed in 1966 by an operational lunar outpost. Expenditures would average $667 million a year from Fiscal Year 1960 through Fiscal Year 1968. The guiding philosophy of the report was one of "enlightened conservatism of technical approach." On July 28 the report was presented to the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff. Additional Details: Project Horizon Phase I report. References: 16 .
Small rocket lift device demonstrated publicly for the first time at Fort Eustis, Va., a rocket belt developed by Bell Aerosystems, which lifted Harold M. Graham in a controlled free flight to an altitude of 15 feet and a standup landing 150 feet from his starting point. References: 18 .
Last launch of a Thor IRBM from Vandenberg. (First launch and first missile fired from Vandenberg AFB on 16 December 1958.) References: 88 .
Attempted unmanned lunar soft lander. Tass reported that all onboard equipment was functioning normally. Two days into the flight, however, the spacecraft's engine failed to shut down following a midcourse correction. This failure caused Luna 6 to miss its target by 159,612.8 Km. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 16 , 296 .
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On work on nuclear rocket engines' was issued. Prior work, mainly on propulsion for manned Mars expeditions, was now concentrated on development of the NEP rocket stage 11B97. This stage would have an electric capacity of 500-600 kW and would use specialised plasma-ion electric engines using standing plasma waves and anodes. References: 474 .
Final launch of the Thor/Burner II from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 15 September 1966). References: 88 .
Combined Venus orbiter/lander mission. After separation of the lander, the orbiter spacecraft entered Venus orbit and acted as a communications relay for the lander and explored cloud layers and atmospheric parameters. On October 20, 1975, the Descent Craft was separated from the Orbiter, and landing was made with the sun near zenith at 05:13 GMT on October 22. The Descent Craft included a system of circulating fluid to distribute the heat load. This system, plus precooling prior to entry, permitted operation of the spacecraft for 53 min after landing. The landing was about 2,200 km from the Venera 10 landing site. Preliminary results indicated: (A) clouds 30-40 km thick with bases at 30-35 km altitude, (B) atmospheric constituents including HCl, HF, Br, and I, (C) surface pressure about 90 (earth) atmospheres, (D) surface temperature 485 deg C, (E) light levels comparable to those at earth midlatitudes on a cloudy summer day, and (F) successful TV photography showing shadows, no apparent dust in the air, and a variety of 30-40 cm rocks which were not eroded. Venera 9 and 10 were the first probes to send back black and white pictures from the Venusian surface. They were supposed to make 360 degree panoramic shots, but on both landers one of two camera covers failed to come off, restricting their field of view to 180 degrees. Parameters are for Venus orbit. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 , 296 , 428 .
Replaced Molniya 3-14. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
3rd generation, high resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 6 .
Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
First launch by Titan 4 of new generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. However earlier NOSS weighed only 2,000 kg; Titan 4 booster has seven times this capacity. What else was launched? References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 172 .
EORSAT, first of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 143 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Ocean surveillance. References: 2 , 5 , 6 , 69 , 276 .