Robert H. Goddard experimented with liquid oxygen and various liquid hydrocarbons, including gasoline and liquid propane as well as ether, as rocket fuel, under a grant by Clark University. He concluded that although oxygen and hydrogen possessed the greatest heat energy per unit mass, that liquid oxygen and liquid methane offered greatest heat value of combinations which could be used without considerable difficulty. But, he said, "the most practical combination appears to be liquid oxygen References: 17 .
German engineer, Paul Schmidt, working from design of Lorin tube, developed and patented a ramjet engine later modified and used in the V-1 Flying Bomb. References: 17 .
Robert H. Goddard developed component of modern ramjet engine with construction of a rocket fuel pump at Clark University. References: 17 .
First static tests of Heinkel He-112 with rocket engines performed in Germany. References: 17 .
Russian liquid-propellant meteorological rocket, designed by M. K. Tikhonravov, successfully flown. References: 17 .
Theodore von Kármán, Director of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology at Pasadena, founded group which began experiments in design fundamentals of high-altitude sounding rocket. The group, named the Cal Tech Rocket Research Project, consisted of Frank J. Malina, Tsien Hsue-sen, A. M. O. Smith, John W. Parsons, Edward Forman, and Weld Arnold. This was the origin of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. References: 17 .
Jack Parsons of Cal Tech conceived value of slow-burning rocket propellant of constant thrust for JATO use, active development of which was undertaken by Cal Tech in 1940. References: 17 .
Messerschmitt Me-163B rocket interceptor powered by Walther "hot" engine successfully flown at Bremen, Augsburg, and near Leipzig, Germany. Over 300 Me-163B's were produced by Junkers by the end of 1944. References: 17 .
Remains of V-2 which impacted in Sweden were flown to England for Allied analysis. References: 17 .
Geman "Reichenberg" program began for use of manned V-1's air launched from He-111's for suicide missions; test flights were made at Peenemünde. References: 17 .
Cal Tech studied pumping of liquid rocket propellants, particularly nitric acid, resulting in successful design in 1945, which was set aside for future use because of difficulty in handling. References: 17 .
General Electric began a feasibility study of the Hermes C1 which later formed the basis for early Redstone missile research.
Redstone Arsenal was reactivated from standby status as the site of the Ordnance Rocket Center.
VfR, the German Rocket Society disestablished by Hitler in 1933, passed resolution calling for international conference of all astronautical societies. References: 17 .
Ministry of Armaments Decree 'On starting of series production of the R-1 at Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586' was issued. Factory 66 at Zlatoust was originally selected to produce the R-1 in 1949, with SKB-385 to assume production design responsibility and to develop variations of the R-1 with greater range. But the work dragged on without results, and on 1 June 1951 Beria switched R-1 production to Factory 586 at Dnepropetrovsk. He ordered engine production to begin in two months. References: 474 .
NACA Langley's Pilotless Aircraft Research Division demonstrated low drag of thin delta wing (which led to F-102, F-106, B-58) with rocket-powered model flights. References: 17 .
The 54th and 56th brigades were formed for test launches at Kapustin Yar. R-2's were deployed in rocket brigades equipped with six launchers (three divisions per brigade, each division with two batteries).
NACA Lewis Laboratory completed first rocket combustion tests using the high-energy propellant liquid fluorine as an oxidant. References: 17 .
Jet Propulsion Laboratory completed development of the Corporal I, the first U.S. surface-to-surface ballistic missile, and continued with Corporal II development. Army Ordnance also asked JPL to study application of large-scale solid propellant rockets for use as surface-to-surface guided missiles. References: 17 .
First experimental use at NACA Lewis Laboratory of a "boot-strap" rocket-exhaust powered ejector to permit rocket testing at simulated high-altitude conditions without complicated and expensive exhausting facilities. References: 17 .
NACA Lewis Laboratory presented ARDC with results of air-breathing nuclear propulsion systems for manned applications, leading to AEC-AF Pluto project, and also initiated comparison of nuclear rocket with chemical systems for ICBM, a concept of use to Rover program. References: 17 .
Beginning of construction of rail lines to Jiuquan missile test site References: 87 .
Research on tungsten nuclear rocket propulsion systems initiated by NACA Lewis Laboratory, and other feasible systems for practical nuclear rocket systems, such as 1958 concept of coaxial jet gaseous reactor, followed. References: 17 .
The Redstone became the first large U.S. ballistic missile to be deployed overseas, joining the NATO Shield Force.
Competing manned projects. Korolev OKB-1 proposed Vostok ballistic capsule as quickest way to put a man in space while meeting Zenit project's reconnsat requirements. Under project VKA-23 (Vodushno Kosmicheskiye Apparat) Myasishchev OKB-23 proposed two designs, a faceted craft with a single tail, and a dual tail contoured version. Tsybin OKB-256 proposed seven man winged craft with variable wing dihedral. Contracts awarded to all three OKB's to proceed with construction of protoypes. R-7 booster to be used for suborbital launches. References: 83 .
Boeing and Martin selected to conduct feasibility studies on Dynasoar. References: 26 .
NASA announced a change in the Saturn C-1 vehicle configuration. The first ten research and development flights would have two stages, instead of three, because of the changed second stage (S-IV) and, starting with the seventh flight vehicle, increased propellant capacity in the first stage (S-1) booster. References: 16 .
Chelomei heads circumlunar project. Chelomei asked by Khruschev to begin design for booster and spacecraft for circumlunar mission (UR-500 Proton and LK-1). No authorization for lunar landing program, although Korolev, Yangel, and Chelomei all begin booster designs. References: 72 .
With the cancellation of Chelomei's desultory R spaceplane development, the job is handed to 'the profis' - the fighter design bureaus of MiG and Sukhoi. Both would use an air breathing first stage (the XB-70 clone T-4 in Sukhoi's case, a huge new Tupolev hypersonic aircraft 'to be developed' in MiG's case). Second stage would be a conventional expendable rocket stage which would carry the relatively small Spiral spaceplane into orbit. Korolev had been doing some 'back door' work with MiG in competition to Chelomei's R project for some time (Began with 1962 Mikoyan study '50-50': Hypersonic first stage to Mach 5.5; rocket stage with one man), and immediately proposed tests from atop R-7 rockets as early as 1967. At the time all this was begun Dyna Soar was still an active US program. References: 83 .
The ATDA achieved a near-circular orbit (apogee 161.5, perigee 158.5 nautical miles). One hour and 40 minutes later, the scheduled launch of Gemini IX-A was postponed by a ground equipment failure which prevented the transfer of updating information from Cape Kennedy mission control center to the spacecraft computer. The mission was recycled for launch on June 3, following a prepared 48-hour recycle plan. Anomalous telemetry indicated some sort of problem with the target, but it was not until Gemini IX rendezvoused with it in orbit that it was seen that fairing separation had failed. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 26 , 278 .
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On full approval of the Almaz and 7K-TK programs' was issued. Use of the 7K-TK ferry with the Almaz station continued as the project baseline. It was scheduled that the Almaz/Soyuz 7K-TK system would be tested in 1968 and enter service in 1969. References: 474 .
Original planned date for first test of LK in earth orbit. References: 72 .
Manned flight endurance test. Medico-biological, scientific and technical studies and experiments in prolonged orbital flight. Inconclusive results due to slow sun-oriented rotation of spacecraft to conserve fuel producing motion sickness in cosmonauts. Recovered June 19, 1970 11:59 GMT. Additional Details: Soyuz 9. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 32 , 33 , 60 .
The Russians were never able to have enough success with the N1 booster to have a serious schedule for the first Soviet lunar landing. In January 1969, before the first N1 launch, it was not expected that a Soviet landing would take place until 1972 at the earliest. In such circumstances only a disaster leading to cancellation of the Apollo program would allow the Russians to be first to the moon. After the explosions of the first two N1 rockets, and the success of Apollo 11, Russian engineering efforts were diverted into crash development of the Salyut space station in order to beat the American Skylab. Cosmonauts trained for L3 lunar landing missions until October 1973, when the last training group was dissolved. By that time actual manned flight of the original single-launch L3 LOK/LK spacecraft to the moon had been abandoned. Instead work was underway on the N1F-L3M, a twin launch scenario that would put the L3M lander on the surface in 1978 for extended operations, and eventually, a lunar base. This in turn was cancelled with the entire N1 program in 1974.
Suborbital. References: 5 .