Composition research. Launched at 0901 local time. Reached 76.1 km.
NASA fired a Nike-Cajun sounding rocket from Fort Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, containing an instrumented payload to measure data on energetic particles during a period of low solar activity. References: 17 .
The Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, manned by Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, boosted by a Redstone rocket, reached a peak altitude of 190.3 km and a speed of 8,335 km per hour. After a flight of 15 minutes and 37 seconds, the landing was made 487 km downrange from the launch site. The hatch blew while still in water, and the capsule sank; Grissom saved, though his suit was filling up with water through open oxygen inlet lines.
This was the second and final manned suborbital Mercury Redstone flight, and the first flight with trapezoidal window. Further suborbital flights (each astronaut was to make one as a training exercise) were cancelled. An attempt to recover the capsule in very deep water in 1994 not successful. It was finally raised in the summer of 1999. Additional Details: Mercury MR-4. References: 5 , 26 , 33 , 59 , 60 .
NASA announced plans for an advanced Saturn launch complex to be built on 80,000 acres northwest of Cape Canaveral. The new facility, Launch Complex 39, would include a building large enough for the vertical assembly of a complete Saturn launch vehicle and Apollo spacecraft. References: 16 .
Commenting on Republican Presidential candidate Barry Goldwater's views on the space program, Warren Burkett, science writer for the Houston Chronicle, observed that a great deal of research being conducted as part of NASA's Apollo program could be of direct value to the military services. Burkett contended that an orbital laboratory using Apollo-developed components could be used for such military applications as patrol and orbital interception. He suggested that, with Apollo, NASA was generating an inventory of 'off-the-shelf' space hardware suitable for military use if needed.
Decree 'On adoption of the R-9A in shaft and surface variants into armaments' was issued. References: 474 .
Several lunar surface vehicles received national attention:
Bell Aerosystems Company announced that it had designed a rocket-propelled Lunar Flying Vehicle (LFV) to aid Apollo astronauts in their exploration of the moon. This work was the result of a year-long study that the company had conducted for MSFC. The LFV, nicknamed "Hopper," would be able to travel about 80 km (50 mi) without stopping. Bell announced also that it had received additional funds from NASA (almost a half million dollars) to continue work on another lunar vehicle, the so-called Manned Flying System. This latter craft, also primarily a tool for exploration, would be able to transport an astronaut and about 136 kg (300 lbs) of equipment (or two astronauts) for distances up to 24 km (15 mi) from the original landing site. References: 16 .
Bell Aerosystems Company announced that it had received additional funds from NASA (almost a half million dollars) to continue work on another lunar vehicle, the so-called Manned Flying System. This latter craft, also primarily a tool for exploration, would be able to transport an astronaut and about 136 kg (300 lbs) of equipment (or two astronauts) for distances up to 24 km (15 mi) from the original landing site.
Chelomei's TsKBM began work on the UR-700 launch vehicle for manned lunar landing missions in 1962. Chelomei took a sound conservative design approach (i.e. no docking required, no cryogenics).
Decree 'On approval of the R-36 ICBM variant with countermeasures to overcome anti-ballistic missiles and on adoption of the R-36 ICBM into armaments' was issued. References: 474 .
Decree 715-240 'On the Creation of Space Systems for Naval Reconnaissance Comprising the US sat and the R-36-based booster -further work on the US naval reconnaissance satellite, approval of work on the Yantar-2K, and course of work on 7K-VI Zvezda'.
An entire family of Yantar spacecraft was proposed by Kozlovís design bureau during the initial development; information on two film return models has been declassified. Yantar was initially derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, including systems developed for the Soyuz VI military model. During design and development this changed until it had very little in common with Soyuz.
Following numerous problems in the first flight tests of the Soyuz 7K-OK, Kozlov ordered a complete redesign of the 7K-VI manned military spacecraft. The new spacecraft, with a crew of two, would have a total mass of 6.6 tonnes and could operate for a month in orbit. The new design switched the positions of the Soyuz descent module and the orbital modules and was 300 kg too heavy for the standard 11A511 launch vehicle. Therefore Kozlov designed a new variant of the Soyuz launch vehicle, the 11A511M. The project was approved by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, with first flight to be in 1968 and operations to begin in 1969. The booster design, with unknown changes to the basic Soyuz, did not go into full production. References: 474 .
High resolution photo reconnaissance mission. References: 279 .
Block D stage exploded on pad, killing three people. Booster and 7K-L1 spacecraft were still intact however. References: 23 .
Threw excess equipment out of LM before lift-off. References: 66 .
Explored lunar surface near LM and deployed EPISEP unmanned scientific station equipment. References: 66 .
High resolution photo reconnaissance mission. References: 279 .
Failed; did not enter Martian orbit as planned; intended to be a Mars orbiter mission. Mars 4 reached Mars on 10 February 1974. Due to use of helium in preflight tests of the computer chips, which resulted in degradation of the chips during the voyage to Mars, the retro-rockets never fired to slow the craft into Mars orbit. Mars 4 flew by the planet at a range of 2,200 km. It returned one swath of pictures and some radio occultation data. Final heliocentric orbit 1.02 x 1.63 AU, 2.2 degree inclination, 556 day period. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 118 , 274 , 296 .
Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
European communications; 13 deg E. ECS-5/Eutelsat I F5 is a regional geostationary telecommunications satellite for European countries. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. Frequency plan 136-138 MHz (S-E), 148-149.9 MHz (E-S), 10.7-11.7 GHz (S-E), 14.0-14.5 GHz (E-S). Launch time 2334:00 UT. ESA designator ESA/88/03. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also performed communications tasks. Operational multipurpose satellite for telecommunications, meteorological imaging and data relay, radio and television programme distribution and direct television broadcasting for community reception. Geosynchronous orbit longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg east. Launch vehicle Ariane 3 launch vehicle of Arianespace, 24th flight of Ariane and 9th flight of the Ariane 3 version. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
After the lunar mapping phase was completed, the spacecraft left lunar orbit for a planned encounter with Geographos, but a computer fialure on 17 May 1994 led to the flyby being cancelled.
Installed Miras spectrometer. References: 66 .