First Soviet liquid-propellant rocket successfully fired. References: 17 .
Royal Air Force attacked Germany's Peenemünde Rocket Research Center, causing heavy damage and delaying V-weapon program by weeks or months. References: 17 .
Composition research. Launched at 0845 local time. Reached 101.4 km.
First of NIKE-ASP sounding rockets to provide geophysical information on wind activity between 50 and 150 miles high was launched successfully from NASA Wallops Station. References: 17 .
Suborbital. References: 5 .
Carl Sagan, University of California astronomer, warned scientists at a lunar exploration conference, Blacksburg, Va., of the need for sterilization of lunar spacecraft and decontamination of Apollo crewmen, pointing out that Lunik II and Ranger IV probably had deposited terrestrial microorganisms on the moon. Even more serious, he said, was the possibility that lunar microorganisms might be brought to earth where they could multiply explosively. References: 16 .
MSC's Spacecraft Integration Branch proposed an Apollo 'X' spacecraft to be used in Earth orbit for biomedical and scientific missions of extended duration. The spacecraft would consist of the lunar Apollo spacecraft and its systems, with minimum modifications consisting- of redundancies and spares. The concept provided for a first-phase mission which would consider the Apollo 'X' a two-man Earth-orbiting laboratory for a period of 14 to 45 days. The spacecraft would be boosted into a 370-km orbit by a Saturn IB launch vehicle. Additional Details: Apollo X spacecraft to be used in Earth orbit for extended duration biomedical and scientific flights..
Venera 7 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Venus to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970, and a landing capsule was jettisoned. After aerodynamic braking, a parachute system was deployed. The capsule antenna was extended, and signals were returned for 35 min. Another 23 min of very weak signals were received after the spacecraft landed on Venus. The capsule was the first man-made object to return data after landing on another planet. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 64 , 296 .
Zenit-2M area survey photo reconnaissance satellite used for earth resources studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Nauka subsatellite 31KS jettisoned into independent orbit in the course of the mission. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 103 .
Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 19 Aug 1983 13:47:00 GMT. Undocked on 17 Sep 1983 11:44:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 17 Sep 1983 23:43:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.57 days. Total docked time 28.91 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
UK DBS; 31 deg W. Direct broadcasting system. Expected operational life 12.5 yr. Owner/operator: British Sky Broadcasting Ltd, 6 Centaurs Business Park, Grant Way, Isleworth, Middlesex TW7 5QD. Sold on-orbit in 1992 to Telenor Norway and redesignated Thor 1. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Japanese amateur radio satellite. References: 4 .
Mir Expedition EO-22. Valeriy Korzun and Aleksandr Kaleri of the Russian Space Agency (RKA) Claudie Andre-Deshays of the French space agency CNES. This launch was the first of the Soyuz-U booster with a crew aboard following two launch failures of on unmanned flights. Soyuz docked with Mir's front port at 14:50:21 GMT on August 19; Mir was in a 375 x 390 km x 51.6 deg orbit.
On Feb 7 at 16:28:01 GMT the EO-22 crew and American astronaut Linenger undocked the Soyuz TM-24 ferry from the front docking port, flew it around to the far side of the complex and redocked at the rear Kvant port at 16:51:27 GMT. This cleared the forward port for the arrival of the EO-23 crew, who brought with them German astronaut Reinhold Ewald on Feb 12. Korzun, Kaleri and Ewald undocked from Mir in the Soyuz TM-24 spaceship at 03:24 GMT on March 2 and landed at 06:44 GMT near Arkaylk in Kazakstan. References: 4 , 9 , 51 , 276 .
Geosynchronous communications satellite of the Egyptian company Nilesat SA. The satellite joined Nilesat 101 in providing Ku-band broadcast services. Stationed at 7 deg W.
Brasilsat B4 was a C-band geosynchronous communications satellite, replacing the 15-year-old Brasilsat A2 for the Brazilian communications company Embratel.
The National Reconnaissance Office satellite was reported to be an Onyx (formerly Lacrosse) radar imaging spacecraft built by Lockheed Martin. The Titan second stage reached a 572 x 675 km x 68.0 deg orbit and separated from the payload. Amateur observers reported the payload has made two small maneuvers and by Aug 23 was in a 681 x 695 km x 68.1 deg orbit.