TsPUK Mission Control Kaliningrad
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The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps.
The design of an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station was authorised as part of the third generation of Soviet space systems in a 17 February 1976 decree. At that time it was planned that the two stations (DOS-7 and DOS-8) would be equipped with two docking ports at either end of the station and an additional two ports at the sides of the forward small diameter compartment. By the time of the draft project in August 1978 this had evolved to the final Mir configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. Up to that time it was planned that the ports would provide docking positions for 7 tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These would use the Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, but would be equipped with long laboratory modules in place of the descent module and orbital module.
Following the decision to cancel Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station programme, a resolution of February 1979 consolidated the programs, with the docking ports to be reinforced to accommodate 20 tonne space station modules based on Chelomei's TKS manned ferry spacecraft. This order was unpopular with NPO Energia engineers, who felt that often-replaced lower-cost 7 tonne modules were a better technical solution. Nevertheless NPO Energia was made responsible for the overall space station, but subcontracted the work to KB Salyut due to the press of in-house work on Energia, Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, and Progress. The subcontractor began work in the summer of 1979, with drawings being released in 1982-1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels (taken from Almaz), and the new Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Altair satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, and Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers.
|Mir - View of Mir in space.|
Credit: NASA. 42,663 bytes. 640 x 320 pixels.
A major problem was that the station ended up one tonne heavier than designed due to the final weight of the electrical cabling Even after removing most of the experimental equipment (it would have to be delivered to the station later by ferry craft) it still exceeded the performance of the Proton booster to the planned 65 degree inclination orbit. The decision was finally taken in January 1985 to use the same 51.6 degree orbit as Salyut, although this would reduce photographic coverage of the Soviet Union. Meanwhile problems with development of the new software for the Salyut 5B computer lead to the decision to launch Mir with the old analogue Argon computer from Salyut DOS-17K. The digital computer would have to be installed later in orbit.
By April 1985 it was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still make the spring 1986 launch date. The decision was taken on Cosmonautics Day (April 12) to ship the flight model to Baikonur and conduct the systems testing and integration there. Mir arrived at the launch site on 6 May 1985. 1100 of 2500 cables required rework based on results of testing of the ground test model at Khrunichev. In October 1985 Mir was rolled outside of its clean room to conduct communications tests of the Altair system with the Cosmos 1700 satellite already in orbit.
The first launch attempt on 16 February 1986 at very low temperatures was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed. The second attempt on 20 February was successful. The political deadline had been met.
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Just as Mir assembly began in earnest, the Soviet Union disintegrated. The military Spektr module was cancelled and no funds were available for completion of the Priroda earth resources module. Vice President Al Gore and Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin signed an agreement for a two-phase International Space Station program at the US-Russian summit in Washington in September 1993. Phase One (1994-96) would involve Shuttle missions to Russia's current Mir station. NASA would pay Russia $100 million annually to keep a 'guest astronaut' on the Mir complex. The money also made it possible for Russia to launch the 'Spektr' and 'Priroda' expansion modules to Mir, with some US experiments onboard. The program was later extended by two more flights in 1998 to help pay for Russia's ISS contributions. In the end, NASA paid the Russians $472 million for nine Shuttle dockings.
Following the end of the US flights, Mir barely continued in operation into the next century. When it became impossible to keep it going by selling visits to foreign customers, it was decided to bring it down in the Pacific Ocean using a specially modified Progress tug. By then it had been in orbit for 15 years. It had been continuously added to, survived crashes with errant spacecraft and space debris, and provided astronauts from many nations with experience in extended space flight. Major Events: .
By this time Mir had evolved to the final configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. It was planned that the ports would provide docking positions for 7 tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These would use the Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, but would be equipped with long laboratory modules in place of the descent module and orbital module.
|Control Center - Manned spaceflight control center at Korolev|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 45,712 bytes. 581 x 394 pixels.
Drawings for the Mir space station are released during the course of 1982 and 1983 and construction of the spacecraft and its systems are begun.
By early 1984 work on Mir ground to a halt as all resources were put on getting the Buran space shuttle into flight test. This changed in the spring 1984 when Glushko was called into the office of the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defence and ordered to orbit Mir by the 27th Communist Party Congress in the spring of 1986.
1100 of 2500 cables required rework based on results of testing of the ground test model at Khrunichev.
Installed solar array.
Mir was rolled outside of its clean room to conduct communications tests of the Altair system with the Cosmos 1700 satellite already in orbit.
The first launch attempt at very low temperatures was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed.
|Control Center - Manned spaceflight control center|
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Total costs of Mir from February 1986 through return of Soyuz TM-9 in April 1989 were given as 1.471 billion rubles. This sum ncluded Mir, Kvant, all Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and 2 new modules. As of April 1989 50% of the scientific equipment was inoperable and the interior was cramped due to lack of extension modules. Electric power supply problems were first reported in April 1989 (batteries would not hold charge from panels). Mass 27,300 kg as of January 1990. Complex mass with Kvant-2 65,790 kg; with Kristall, Soyuz TM, and Progress M, 89,990 kg.
Mir Main Expedition EO-01. Epic repair mission. Crew comprising ship's commander L D Kizim and flight engineer V A Solovyov first docked with the Mir orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments. Mir then maneuvered 17 April to match Salyut 7 at 4000 km separation, then again on 4 May to catch up. After six weeks aboard Mir, Soyuz T-15 undocked on 5 May, then rendezvoused with the dead Salyut 7 station. Only docking to date by a single spacecraft with two space stations. After manual docking with inoperative Salyut 7, the station was found to be ice bound and without electrical power. Crew repaired the station, regaining power, heat, and environmental control. Removed experimental results left behind by last crew. Undocked Salyut 7 on 25 June, and redocked with Mir on 26 June. Landed 55 km NE Arkalyk. Recovered July 16, 1986 12:34 GMT. No crew ever revisited Salyut 7; it made an uncontrolled reentry over Argentina.
|Interior of Soyuz TM|
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Unmanned supply vessel transporting sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Mir on 21 Mar 1986 11:16:02 GMT. Undocked on 20 Apr 1986 19:24:08 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 21 Apr 1986 00:48:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 30.34 days.
Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Rendezvoused with Mir on 25 April, but problem with Mir's radio communication system delays docking until the next day. Docked with Mir on 26 Apr 1986 21:26:06 GMT. Undocked on 22 Jun 1986 18:25:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Jun 1986 15:41:01 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.96 days. Total docked time 56.87 days.
Test of new Soyuz vehi cle. Recovered May 30, 1986 6:49 GMT. Unmanned test of Soyuz TM. Docked with Mir May 23 1987. Undocked 29 May.
Officially: Comprehensive experimental testing of spacecraft in independent flight and jointly with the Mir orbital station.
|Interior of Soyuz TM|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 46,851 bytes. 534 x 362 pixels.
Tested truss structure.
Unmanned supply vessel to Mir; raised Mir's orbit. Transported sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 18 Jan 1987 07:26:50 GMT. Undocked on 23 Feb 1987 11:29:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 25 Feb 1987 16:05:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.25 days. Total docked time 36.17 days.
Mir Expedition EO-02. Docked with Mir 7 February 1987. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Aleksander Laveykin to Mir; returned Laveykin, crew of Soyuz TM-3 to Earth. Undocked from Mir 8:34 GMT 29 July. Orbital Module left in a 308 X 356 orbit. Recovered July 30, 1987 01:54 GMT.
Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Orbit of station at time of rendezvous was 344 X 369 km, 51. 62 deg. Docked with Mir on 5 Mar 1987 12:42:36 GMT. Undocked on 26 Mar 1987 05:06:48 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Mar 1987 03:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.01 days. Total docked time 20.68 days.
|Cutaway of Kvant - Cutaway of Kvant illustrating service module that separated after docking with Mir.|
Credit: RKK Energia. 22,186 bytes. 464 x 189 pixels.
MIR module; high energy observatory. Docked with Mir. Rendezvous with Mir 5 April; soft dock 9 April; EVA on 11 April to remove fabric strip from docking apparatus and hard dock; jettisoned service module on 12 April at 22:18
168 km X 278 km orbit to 172 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
169 km X 296 km orbit to 172 km X 314 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
170 km X 313 km orbit to 297 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 46 m/s
298 km X 344 km orbit to 345 km X 364 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
Service Module only, after undocking with Mir:
345 km X 364 km orbit to 341 km X 363 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
340 km X 361 km orbit to 383 km X 406 km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
Total Delta V: 101 m/s
Officially: Extra-atmospheric astronomic research and resolution of a number of problems with scientific and economic applications.
Removed bag from docking unit that interfered with Kvant docking.
Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Deorbited May 11, 1987. Docked with Mir at 343 X 363 1705 23 April at rear port of Kvant. Undocked May 11 03:10. Deorbited28 May 02:59 .
Officially: Transporting sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 23 Apr 1987 17:04:51 GMT. Undocked on 11 May 1987 03:10:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 11 May 1987 08:28:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 17.42 days.
|Progress capsule - Progress return capsule. Diagram illustrates separation from Progress during deorbit burn and recovery sequence.|
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Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Rendezvoused with Mir/Kvant in its orbit of 343 X 366 km, 51. 6 deg. Docked with the station on 21 May 1987 05:50:38 GMT. Undocked on 19 Jul 1987 00:19:51 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Jul 1987 05:42:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 58.77 days.
Began solar array installation.
Continued solar array installation.
Manned three crew. Transported to the Mir orbital space station a Soviet-Syrian crew comprising cosmonauts A S Viktorenko, A P Aleksandrov and M A Faris to conduct joint research and experiments with cosmonauts Y Romanenko and A Laveykin. Maneuvered from initial 231 X 217 km orbit to Mir's 311 X 359 km orbit. Docked with rear Mir port at 3:30 GMT 24 July. Undocked with rear port 30 July and docked to forward port. Undocked 05:55 GMT 29 December. Returned Aleksandrov, Yuri Romanenko (Soyuz TM-2), Anatoly Levchenko (Soyuz TM-4) to Earth. Recovered December 29, 1987 09:16 GMT. Landed near Arkalyk.
|Mir simulator - Mir simulator at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center|
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Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered 850 kg propellants, 315 kg food, 2,000 kg total. Docked with Mir on 26 Sep 1987 01:08:15 GMT. Undocked on 10 Nov 1987 04:09:10 GMT. Redocked from 2,500 m on 10 Nov 1987 05:47 GMT. Undocked again 17 Nov 1998 19:25 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Nov 1987 00:58:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.17 days. Total docked time 52.82 days.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Space station orbit at rendezvous was 326 km x 343 km. Docked on 23 Nov 1987 01:39:13 GMT. Undocked on 19 Dec 1987 08:15:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Dec 1987 13:37:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 26.28 days.
Mir Expedition EO-03. Carried Musa Manarov, Anatoly Levchenko, Vladimir Titov to Mir; returned crew of Soyuz TM-5 to Earth. Orbits 168 x 243 km, 255 x 296 km, 333 x 359 km. Docked with Mir 12:51 GMT 23 December. 30 December moved to forward port. Undocked 06:18 GMT 17 June 88. Recovered June 17, 1988 10:13 GMT. Landed 202 km from Dzehezkazgan.
|Soyuz T panel - Soyuz T control panel 3|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 64,244 bytes. 574 x 398 pixels.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 23 Jan 1988 00:09:09 GMT. Undocked on 4 Mar 1988 03:40:09 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Mar 1988 07:29:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.21 days. Total docked time 41.15 days.
Completed solar array installation. Inspected exterior of station.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 25 Mar 1988 22:21:35 GMT. Undocked on 5 May 1988 01:36:03 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 May 1988 06:56:19 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 40.14 days.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 185x246 km, 51. 66 deg; 223x334 km; 331x357 km. Docked with Mir on 15 May 1988 02:13:26 GMT. Undocked on 5 Jun 1988 11:11:55 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Jun 1988 21:18:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.49 days. Total docked time 21.37 days.
|Progress - Drawing of the initial version of the Progress refuelling spacecraft.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 2,814 bytes. 289 x 172 pixels.
Began repair of TTM telescope.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 187x256 km, 51. 62 deg; 235 x 319 km; 343 x 347 km. Docked with Mir on 20 Jul 1988 22:33:40 GMT. Refuelling operations on 7,8, and 9 August 1998. Undocked on 12 Aug 1988 08:31:54 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 12 Aug 1988 13:45:40 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 22.42 days.
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Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. During launch first test of Buran ejection seat was made during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 186 X 246 km, 51. 63 deg; 234 X 332 km, 337 X 363 km. Docked with Mir on 12 Sep 1988 01:22:28 GMT. Delivered 2,000 kg supplies including 300 kg of food. Refuelled Mir. Undocked on 23 Nov 1988 12:12:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Nov 1988 19:06:58 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 72.45 days.
Completed repair of TTM telescope. Tested new spacesuit.
|Soyuz T panel - Soyuz T control panel 4|
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Deployed ERA (French experiment).
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Made second test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Rendezvous orbits 187 X 237 km, 51.63 deg; 236 X 338 km; 325 X 353 km at Mir. Delivered 1,300 kg cargo. Docked with Mir on 27 Dec 1988 05:35:10 GMT. Undocked on 7 Feb 1989 06:45:34 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 Feb 1989 13:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 42.05 days.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted third test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Docked with Mir on 12 Feb 1989 10:29:38 GMT. Undocked on 3 Mar 1989 01:45:52 GMT. Unfurled experimental space mirror petal structure on undocking. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Mar 1989 01:59:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.08 days. Total docked time 18.64 days.
|Unknown capsule - unknown capsule at Energia Museum|
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Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted fourth test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Delivered Bulgarian Spektr 256 spectrometer, power supplies for failed equipment. Docked with Mir on 18 Mar 1989 20:50:46 GMT. Between April 9 and 17 boosted Mir into a 373 X 416 km storage orbit after the decision was made to delay remanning the station. However these maneuvers resulted in the spacecraft running out of fuel. Undocked on 21 Apr 1989 01:46:15 GMT. Destroyed in uncontrolled decay of orbit on 25 Apr 1989 12:12:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 6.52 days. Total docked time 33.21 days.
Planned flight to ensure continuous occupation cancelled due to budget cutbacks and delay in launching Kvant 2 and Kristall modules.
Unmanned supply vehicle to Mir; first flight of new vehicle design. Tested on-board systems under different conditions and delivered expendable materials and sundry cargo to the Mir manned space station. Docked with Mir on 25 Aug 1989 05:19:02 GMT. Undocked on 1 Dec 1989 09:02:23 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 1 Dec 1989 11:21:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.19 days. Total docked time 98.16 days.
|Kvant / SM Jettison - Picture Kvant showing SM jettison 1|
Credit: RKK Energia. 9,360 bytes. 322 x 238 pixels.
Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-05. Docked with Mir 8 September. Transported to the Mir orbital station a team consisting of A S Viktorenko, commander of the spacecraft, and A A Serebrov, on-board engineer, to carry out scientific and technological research and experiments. Flight cost 80 million rubles. Expected return 25 million rubles net profit.
Mir expansion module. Scheduled docking 2 December delayed due to failure of solar panel to extend and failure of automatic rendezvous system. Faults corrected by ground control and docked with Mir December 6, 1989 at 12:21 GMT. Transferred to lateral port December 8.
Officially: Delivery to the Mir orbital station of additional equipment and apparatus for the purpose of expanding the research and experiments conducted in the interests of science and the national economy.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried US microgravity payload. Delivered various cargoes to the Mir orbital station, including scientific apparatus produced in the United States of America and intended, pursuant to a commercial agreement, for the conduct of experiments on space biotechnology. Docked with Mir on 22 Dec 1989 05:41:21 GMT. Undocked on 9 Feb 1990 02:33:07 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 9 Feb 1990 07:56:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.31 days. Total docked time 48.87 days.
|Progress M - Drawing of the advanced version of the Progress resupply spacecraft used with Mir.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 3,151 bytes. 307 x 189 pixels.
Installed star tracker.
Retrieved and installed material samples
Tested spacesuit. Examined exterior of Kvant 2.
Serebrov tested SPK manoeuvring unit.
Viktorenko tested SPK manoeuvring unit.
Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-06. Docked with Mir. Transported to the Mir orbital station a crew comprising the cosmonauts A Y Solovyov and A N Balandin to conduct an extensive programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, experiments on biology and biotechnology and work on space materials science. Recovered August 9, 1990 07:35 GMT. Landed 70 km from Arkalyk at 50 deg 51'E 67 deg 17' N.
Credit: RKK Energia. 29,122 bytes. 495 x 277 pixels.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; last of original design Progress spacecraft. Conducted fifth and final test of Buran ejection seat during ascent to orbit. The K-36M.11F35 seat was installed in an 'experimental droppable compartment' installed in place of the Launch Escape Tower engine on top of the shroud. Docked with Mir on 7 May 1990 22:45:03 GMT. Undocked on 27 May 1990 07:08:58 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 27 May 1990 12:27:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.31 days. Total docked time 19.35 days.
Mir module; materials processing laboratory. Docked with Mir. Kristall: Mass: 19,500 kg. Mass on docking 17,200 kg. Length: 11. 9 m or 13. 73 m?. Solar array span 36 m. Diameter: 4. 35 m. Payload: 7,000 kg. Two compartments. Instrument-Payload Compartment contains food containers, and industrial processing units Krater 3, Optizon 1, Zona 02, and Zona 03. 0. 8 m hatch leads to Junction-Docking compartment. This contains spherical universal docker with two APAS-89 androgynous docking units. These will be used to dock with Buran shuttle and 1,000 kg X-ray telescope to be delivered by Buran in 1991. Third opening houses earth observation cameras.
Launch originally planned for 30 March 1990. Delayed to April 18, then further delayed due to computer chip problems.
Launched 31 May 1990 12:33 GMT. Docking scheduled June 6 at 12:36 but delayed due to problem with one of Kristall's orientation engines. Docking successful 10 June at 12:47. On June 11 moved to side port. Work within module began 15 June.
Spektr: Late 1991 launch. Remote sensing work. Occupies port opposite Kvant 2. Before this occurs Kristall solar arrays will be relocated to Kvant.
Officially: Specialized module. Experimental-industrial production of semi-conducting materials; refinement of biologically active substances for the production of new medicinal preparations. Cultivation of crystals of different albumine compositions and hybridizatio n of cells. Conduct of astrophysical and technical experiments.
|Progress capsule - View of the Progress 'Raduga' mini-capsule used for recovery of materials from the Mir station.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 36,801 bytes. 371 x 360 pixels.
Repaired Soyuz TM-9 insulation rip.
Dismantled equipment. Temporarily closed damaged hatch.
Manned two crew. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-07. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station the crew consisting of the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov for the purpose of carrying out a programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, biological and biotechnological experiments, and work on space-materials science. Recovered December 10, 1990 06:08 GMT. Landed 69 km NW Arkalyk.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered cables for rewiring operations and equipment for Soyuz TM-11 Japanese journalist flight. Docked with Mir on 17 Aug 1990 05:26:13 GMT. Undocked on 17 Sep 1990 12:42:43 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Sep 1990 11:42:49 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.02 days. Total docked time 31.30 days.
|Soyuz Descent Module|
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Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Included first Progress recoverable capsule for return of 150 kg of payload to earth. Docked with Mir on 29 Sep 1990 12:26:50 GMT. Undocked on 28 Nov 1990 06:15:46 GMT. After deorbit burn, capsule separated for reentry with an expected landing in Kazakhstan at 28 Nov 1990 11:04:05 GMT. However the recoverable capsule's beacon signal was never received after reentry. All experimental data and materials in capsule lost. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 59.74 days.
Attempt to repair Kvant 2 hatch.
Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-08. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station the international crew consisting of the cosmonauts V M Afanasyev, M Kh Manarov, and T Akiyami (Japan) for the purpose of carrying out joint work with the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov. Launched jointly with the private Japanese company TBS. The Japanese television network ended up paying $ 28 million for the first commercial flight to Mir to put Akiyama, the first journalist in space aboard Soyuz TM-11. Akiyama made daily television broadcasts.
|Kvant / SM Jettison - Picture Kvant showing SM jettison 2|
Credit: RKK Energia. 9,440 bytes. 322 x 190 pixels.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered new life support equipment to replace life-expired equipment aboard. Docked with Mir on 16 Jan 1991 16:35:25 GMT. Undocked on 15 Mar 1991 12:46:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Mar 1991 18:07:26 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 57.84 days.
Installed Strela boom on Mir.
Installed solar array supports.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Attempted to dock with Mir on 21 March 1998 14:28 GMT, but missed the station by 500 m. Docking attempted again on 23 March but at 50 meters the docking was aborted; the Progress missed hitting the station by five meters. Thereafter it was placed in a station-keeping co-orbit with Mir while the problem was diagnosed. Finally docked with Mir on 28 Mar 1991 12:02:28 GMT. On 12 and 14 Apr 1998 two burns of the engine of Progress M-7 raised the station's orbit from a 360 x 377 km orbit to a 370 x 382 km orbit. Undocked on 6 May 1991 22:59:36 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 May 1991 17:20:05 GMT. Total free-flight time 9.72 days. Total docked time 39.46 days.
|Progress M - Drawing of the advanced version of the Progress resupply spacecraft used with Mir.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 6,318 bytes. 505 x 284 pixels.
Inspected Kurs docking system antenna.
Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-09. Carried Anatoli Artsebarski, Sergei Krikalev, Helen Sharman to Mir; returned Artsebarski, crew of Soyuz TM 8 to Earth. Second commercial flight with paying British passenger. Sponsoring British consortium was not quite able to come up with money, however. Flight continued at Soviet expense with very limited UK experiments.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 1 Jun 1991 09:44:37 GMT. Undocked on 15 Aug 1991 22:16:59 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Aug 1991 06:56:32 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.43 days. Total docked time 75.52 days.
|Soyuz-Mir-Kvant - Soyuz-Mir-Kvant-Soyuz Isometric|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 5,164 bytes. 451 x 256 pixels.
Deployed from MIR 6/17/91. Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. Launched with the Mir orbital station.
Replaced Kurs docking system antenna.
Attached TREK cosmic ray collector to exterior of station.
Began Sofora girder construction. Sofora mounting platform installed.
Began assembly of Sofora girder.
Continued assembly of Sofora girder.
Completed assembly of Sofora girder.
Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial considerations and necessity of flying a Kazakh cosmonaut. This was the original crew assignment. Kaleri and Avdeyev were replaced by Kazakh researchers in the final crew.
|Panel Soyuz TM - Control panel of the Soyuz T/TM later version of the space station ferry vehicle..|
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Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried reentry capsule for return of 150 kg of experiment results. Docked with Mir on 23 Aug 1991 00:54:17 GMT. Undocked on 30 Sep 1991 01:53:00 GMT. 350 kg return capsule detached from the Propess' orbital module at an altitude of 110 to 130 km. The capsule underwent a ballistic descent to 15 km, followed by a parachute descent from there to surface. The capsule's beacon began transmitting at 4.5 km. Landed in Kazakhstan on 30 Sep 1991 08:16:24 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 38.04 days.
Manned three crew. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-10. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station an international crew comprising the cosmonauts A Volkov (USSR), T Aubakirov (USSR) and F. Viehbock (Austria), to conduct joint scientific and technical research with the cosmonauts A. Artsebarsky and S Krikalev. Austria paid $ 7 million for mission. Kazakh cosmonaut added at last minute. On March 25, Volkov, Krikalyov and Flade undocked from the front port in Soyuz TM-13 and landed in Kazakhstan at 08:51 GMT on March 25.
|Mir against Space - The Mir station seen against space during one of the Shuttle-Mir missions.|
Credit: NASA. 38,836 bytes. 800 x 600 pixels.
Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial seat bookings by Austria and Germany and the necessity of flying a Kazakh-born cosmonaut as part of the Baikonur rental agreement. This was the original crew assignment. The Kazakh researchers were moved to the earlier Soyuz TM-13 flight.
Planned Soyuz flight to Mir. Main purpose was to provide spaceflight experience to Bachurin and Borodai, who had been selected as back-up crew of the first manned Buran flight (the original back-up crew of Levchenko and Shchukin both died in 1988). Cancelled in cut-backs after fall of the Soviet Union.
Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial seat bookings by Austria and Germany and the necessity of flying a Kazakh-born cosmonaut as part of the Baikonur rental agreement. This was the second crew assignment. The Kazakh researchers were moved to the earlier Soyuz TM-13 flight and paying German researchers took their place in the final crew.
|Soyuz T panel - Soyuz T control panel 1|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 67,857 bytes. 529 x 397 pixels.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 27 Jan 1992 09:30:43 GMT. Undocked on 13 Mar 1992 08:43:40 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 13 Mar 1992 15:47:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 45.97 days.
Mir Expedition EO-11. Joint flight with Germany. Docked at the Kvant rear port at 12:33 GMT on March 19. The Soyuz TM-14 crew, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Kaleri, returned to Earth together with French astronaut Michel Tognini. The Soyuz TM-14 undocked from Mir at 21:47 GMT on Aug 9, and landed in Kazakhstan at 01:07 GMT on August 10.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 21 Apr 1992 23:21:59 GMT. Undocked on 27 Jun 1992 21:34:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Jun 1992 00:02:51 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.18 days. Total docked time 66.93 days.
|Mir against Horizon - The Mir station seen against the horizon during one of the Shuttle-Mir missions.|
Credit: NASA. 45,184 bytes. 640 x 481 pixels.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. An initial docking attempt on 2 Jul 1992 was a failure. Docked with Mir on 4 Jul 1992 16:55:13 GMT. Undocked on 24 Jul 1992 04:14:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 24 Jul 1992 08:03:35 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.17 days. Total docked time 19.47 days. It was docked to Mir for only a few weeks, since on 26 Jul the Soyuz TM-15 was to be launched with a replacement crew and would need to use the same docking port.
Inspected gyrodyne orientation flywheels.
Mir Expedition EO-12. Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini were inserted into an initial 190 x 200 km orbit inclined 51.6 deg. Later on July 27 they maneuvered to a 223 x 343 km orbit, and on July 28 docked with Mir in its 405 x 410 km orbit. Aleksandr Solovyov and Sergey Avdeev undocked from the Mir complex aboard Soyuz TM-15 on February 1 and landed the same day in Kazakhstan after six months in space at 03:58 GMT. Soyuz TM-15's flight was an in-orbit record for a Soyuz spaceship - 188 days 21 h 39 m.
|Soyuz T engine - The Soyuz T introduced a new service module with unitary translation/attitude control thrusters as part of a single bipropellant system with the main pump-fed engine.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 49,222 bytes. 540 x 392 pixels.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Progress M-38 was specially modified to carry the first VDU (Vynosnaya Dvigatel'naya Ustanovka, External Engine Unit) propulsion unit. The VDU was mounted externally on a special structure between the cargo module and the service module, replacing the OKD fuel section present on normal Progress vehicles. The crew spacewalked to extract the VDU from Progress and place it on the end of the Sofora boom extending from the Kvant module. The VDU was used to provide attitude control capability for the Mir station. Docked with Mir on 18 Aug 1992 00:20:48 GMT. Undocked on 21 Oct 1992 16:46:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 21 Oct 1992 23:12:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 64.68 days.
Began installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower.
Continued installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower.
Completed installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower.
Installed Kurs docking system antenna on Kristall module.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 2,910 bytes. 326 x 190 pixels.
Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station.
Deployed from MIR on 11/20/92. Launched from Mir airlock. Conduct of experiments to study physical processes in the Earth's ionosphere. Small satellite launched from the Mir station.
Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-13. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station a crew of the thirteenth main expedition comprising the cosmonauts G M Manakov and A F Poleschuk.The Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system. Soyuz TM-16 landed at 06:42 GMT on July 22.
|Progress T cutaway - Cutaway of Progress T resupply craft.|
Credit: RKK Energia. 24,087 bytes. 418 x 275 pixels.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Conducted docked and undocked longevity spacecraft longevity tests. Docked with Mir on 1 Apr 1993 05:16:18 GMT. Undocked on 11 Aug 1993 15:36:42 GMT. Destroyed in reentry over the South Atlantic on 3 Mar 1994 03:28:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 204.56 days. Total docked time 132.43 days.
Began installation of Kvant 1 solar array drive unit.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Last launch using Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle. Docked with Mir's front port on 24 May 1993 08:24:44 GMT. In addition to other supplies, carried repair equipment for a spacewalk device damaged a month before. Undocked on 3 Jul 1993 15:58:16 GMT, with Soyuz TM-17 docking at the same port only minutes later at 17:45 GMT. Meanwhile, Progress M-17 remained docked to the Kvant rear port on a longevity test. Progress M-18 was destroyed in reentry on 4 Jul 1993 17:13:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.12 days. Total docked time 40.31 days.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 6,267 bytes. 500 x 287 pixels.
Completed installation of Kvant 1 solar array drive unit.
Mir Expedition EO-14. Carried Vasili Tsibliyev, Alexander Serebrov, Jean-Pierre Haignere to Mir; returned Serebrov, Tsibliyev to Earth. Progress M-18 undocked from Mir's front port at around 17:25 GMT on July 3, and Soyuz TM-17 docked at the same port only 20 minutes later at 17:45 GMT. The EO-14 crew landed at 08:18 GMT on Jan 14 in the Soyuz TM-17 spaceship. The EO-14 expedition lasted 196 days 18hr 45 m, the 7th longest spaceflight.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir at the Kvant rear port on 13 Aug 1993 00:00:06 GMT. Undocked on 13 Oct 1993 17:59:06 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Oct 1993 00:22:14 GMT. Total free-flight time 7.33 days. Total docked time 61.75 days.
|Soyuz T panel - Soyuz T control panel|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 77,212 bytes. 577 x 395 pixels.
Completed installation of Rapana truss.
Installed material samples and retrieved experiment packages. Documented external condition of Mir.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir, carried a Raduga reentry capsule for return of experimental materials to earth. Docked with Mir on 13 Oct 1993 23:24:46 GMT. Undocked on 21 Nov 1993 02:38:43 GMT. Capsule landed in Kazakhstan on 21 Nov 1993 09:06:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 38.13 days.
Retrieved micrometeoroid detectors.
Installed equipment on exterior of Mir
|Soyuz T panel - Soyuz T control panel 2|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 62,856 bytes. 578 x 400 pixels.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 30 Jan 1994 03:56:13 GMT. Undocked on 23 Mar 1994 01:20:29 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Mar 1994 05:13:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 51.89 days.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Launched into an initial 192 x 238 x 51.6 km orbit. Docked with Mir on 24 Mar 1994 06:39:37 GMT. Fired its engine around 15 May to raise the orbit of the Mir station from 381 x 400 km to 398 x 399 km. Undocked on 23 May 1994 00:58:38 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 May 1994 04:40:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 59.76 days.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir, with Raduga return capsule. Docked with Mir on 24 May 1994 06:18:35 GMT. Undocked on 2 Jul 1994 08:46:49 GMT. The braking engine was ignited at 14:44 GMT, and the Raduga VBK reentry capsule was ejected at 14:55:45 GMT. The Progress burnt up in the atmosphere at 14:57 GMT. The Raduga deployed its parachute after reentry and landed on 2 Jul 1994 15:09:00 GMT at 51 deg 41 min N, 59 deg 21 min E, in the Orenburg region. Total free-flight time 2.34 days. Total docked time 39.10 days.
|Progress - View of the original Progress spacecraft, as dsplayed in Moscow in 1981.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 62,349 bytes. 500 x 370 pixels.
Mir Expedition EO-16. Soyuz TM-19 docked at the rear port of the Kvant module (vacated by Progress M-23 on July 2) at 13:55:01 GMT on July 3. Soyuz TM-19 undocked from Mir at 07:29 GMT on November 4. The Soyuz instrument module (PAO, priborno-agregatniy otsek) fired its deorbit engine, and was jettisoned together with the orbital module (BO, bitovoy otsek) at 10:51 GMT, with entry interface for the descent module (SA, spuskaemiy apparat) at 10:54. It landed 170 km north-east of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan on 1994 November 4 at 11:18 GMT.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Failed to dock with Mir on 27 Aug 1994. A second automatic docking attempt on 30 Aug 1994 also failed and the Progress collided with the Kvant module. A third and final attempt, manually controlled by Mir commander Yuriy Malenchenko, was successful on 2 Sep 1994 13:30:28 GMT. The Mir commander and flight engineer, Yuriy Malenchenko and Talgat Musabaev, made a spacewalk on 9 Sep 1994 to inspect the damage to the Kvant module made when the Progress collided with Kvant. Undocked on 4 Oct 1994 18:55:52 GMT, leaving the rear docking port free for Soyuz TM-20. Destroyed in reentry over the Pacific at 38.4 deg S, 137.4 deg W,on 4 Oct 1994 22:43:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 8.12 days. Total docked time 32.23 days.
|Soyuz T panel - Soyuz T control panel 5|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 53,990 bytes. 578 x 398 pixels.
Repaired station external insulation. Checked docking port.
Checked out equipment on exterior of Mir.
Mir Expedition EO-17. Docked at the Mir forward port at 00:28 on 1994 October 6. The Mir crew of Viktorenko, Kondakova and Polyakov boarded Soyuz TM-20 on January 11, and undocked from Mir's front port at 09:00 GMT. The spacecraft withdrew to about two hundred metres from Mir and then redocked in a test of the automatic Kurs system, which had failed in Progress M-24's attempted docking. Redocking came at 09:25 GMT. Soyuz TM-20 landed 22 km northeast of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan at 04:04 GMT on March 22, 1995.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 13 Nov 1994 09:04:29 GMT. Undocked on 16 Feb 1995 13:03:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Feb 1995 16:45:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 95.17 days.
Buran Flight 5 (3K1) would have been the first flight of the third orbiter. It would be the first manned Buran flight; the third orbiter was the first outfitted with life support systems and ejection seats. Two cosmonauts would deliver the 37KBI module to Mir, using the Buran manipulator arm to dock it to the station's Kristall module. Final crew selection had still not been made at the time the program was cancelled. The original crew was Volk and Stankiavicius, with Levchenko and Shchukin as back-ups. Both Levchenko and Shchukin died in 1988; Bachurin and Borodai were selected as the new back-up crew. By July 1992 the Soviet Air Force and NPO Energia were still arguing about the final crew composition. The Air Force wanted all test pilot crews (those indicated) while Energia wanted to include a flight engineer in each crew. The Buran project was finally cancelled in June 1993 when further funding was deleted from the Russian space budget.
|Orlan DM Spacesuit - Orlan DM spacesuit used on Mir.|
Credit: Andy Salmon. 26,067 bytes. 250 x 493 pixels.
Deployed ODERACS 2A-2E; deployed and retrieved Spartan 204. Discovery rendezvoused with Russia's space station, Mir, to a distance of 11 m and performed a fly-around, but did not dock with Mir. Payloads: SPACEHAB 03, Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 204, Cryo Systems Experiment (CSE)/GLO-2 Experi-ment Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS) 2, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC)
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 17 Feb 1995 18:21:34 GMT. Undocked on 15 Mar 1995 02:26:38 GMT. Destroyed in reentry over the Pacific Ocean on 15 Mar 1995 06:15:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.22 days. Total docked time 25.34 days.
|SPK MMU - SPK Manned Maneuvering Unit|
Credit: Andy Salmon. 35,764 bytes. 346 x 469 pixels.
Mir Expedition EO-18. Soyuz TM-21 carried the EO-18 Mir crew and American Norman Thagard. Thagard was the first American to be launched in a Soyuz. Soyuz docked with Mir at 07:45:26 GMT on March 16 . On July 4 Soyuz TM-21 undocked and backed off to a distance of 100 m from Mir. The US space shuttle Atlantis, with the EO-18 crew aboard, then undocked and began a flyaround at a distance of 210 m, while the EO-19 crew aboard Soyuz took pictures before redocking with the station. Soyuz TM-21 again undocked with the EO-19 crew on September 11 from the Kvant rear port on Mir and landed at 50 deg 41'N 68 deg 15'E, 108 km northeast of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan, at 06:52:40 GMT .
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried GFZ-1 German sub-satellite to Mir. Docked with Mir on 11 Apr 1995 21:00:44 GMT. Undocked on 22 May 1995 23:42:37 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 May 1995 03:27:52 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.22 days. Total docked time 41.11 days.
Geodetic; carried retroreflectors for ground laser ranging; delivered to Mir on Progress M-27 and deployed from Mir 4/19/95 .
|Kvant Cutaway - The Kvant module was the first addition to the Mir core. The module is divided into a pressurised laboratory compartment and a non-pressurised equipment compartment. The laboratory compartment is further divided into an instrumentation area and a living area, which are separated by an interior partition.|
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Began installation of solar array.
MIR experiment module. Docked to Mir Jun 1
Officially: Docked to Mir Jun 1
Completed installation of solar array.
Repositioned docking adapter.
Repositioned docking adapter.
Mir Expedition EO-19. Transferred Budarin, Solovyov to Mir, returned Soyuz TM-21 crew to Earth. After undocking from Mir on July 4, Atlantis spent several days on orbit, carrying out medical research work with the Spacelab-Mir module in the cargo bay. Payloads: Shuttle/Mir Mission 1, Spacelab-Mir, IMAX camera, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX).
|Mir Complex Cutaway - Cutaway drawing of the Mir space station.|
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Repaired solar array. Inspected exterior of station.
Retrieved TREK detector.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir's front port on 22 Jul 1995 04:39:37 GMT. Undocked on 4 Sep 1995 05:09:53 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Sep 1995 08:58:55 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.22 days. Total docked time 44.02 days.
Installed Miras spectrometer.
Mir Expedition EO-20. Crew commander was Yuriy Pavlovich Gidzenko of the Russian Air Force. Flight engineer was Sergey Vasilyevich Avdeev of RKK Energiya, and cosmonaut-researcher was Thomas Reiter of the European Space Agency. Soyuz TM-22 docked with Mir's front (-X) port at 10:29:54 GMT on September 5 and the hatch was opened at 11:01:23. On February 29 the crew undocked from Mir in Soyuz TM-22, and at 10:42 GMT they landed in Kazakhstan.
|Kvant 2 Cutaway - Kvant 2 was the second addition to the Mir core module. The module has is divided into three pressurised compartments: instrumentation/cargo, science instruments and an airlock.|
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Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Launched into an initial 194 x 242 km x 51.7 deg orbit. Docked with Mir's rear of the Kvant module port on 10 Oct 1995 20:32:40 GMT (Soyuz TM-22 was docked to the front port). Undocked on 19 Dec 1995 09:15:05 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Dec 1995 16:15:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.36 days. Total docked time 69.53 days.
Sample cassettes installed in ESEF (European Science Exposure Facility).
Atlantis rendezvoused and docked with Mir space station on Nov 15. After departure the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module remained attached to Mir to provide easier docking capability in the future.
|Progress Shroud - Early Progress launches used the Soyuz shroud. Although the launch escape tour was retained to maintain the proven aerodynamics, the escape motors and grid stabilizers on the side of the shroud were deleted.|
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Repositioned docking adapter.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 20 Dec 1995 16:10:15 GMT. Undocked on 22 Feb 1996 07:30:02 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 22 Feb 1996 11:02:36 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.22 days. Total docked time 63.64 days.
Retrieved and installed material samples
Mir Expedition EO-21. Soyuz TM-23 docked with Mir at 14:20:35 on February 23. The spacecraft undocked on September 2 at 04:20 GMT, and made a small seperation burn at 04:24:40 GMT. Deorbit was at 06:47:20 GMT . The three modules separated at 07:14:36 and the parachute deployed at 07:26 GMT. The landing was at 07:41:40 GMT, 100 km SW of Akmola in Kazakstan with Yuri Onufrienko, Yuriy Usachyov and Claudie Andre-Deshays. This concluded the French 'Cassiopee' mission.
|Kristall Cutaway - Kristall is the third addition to the Mir core vehicle. Kristall is divided into an instrument/cargo and instrument/docking compartment.|
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Telescopic boom installed.
Shuttle-Mir Mission 3. Docked with the Mir space station 24 March 1996; Shannon Lucid was left on Mir for an extended stay. First American EVA on Mir. Payloads: SPACEHAB/Mir 03; KidSat; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Configuration M; RME 1304óMir/ Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP); orbiter docking system RME 1315; Trapped Ions in Space Experiment (TRIS); Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Test (EDFT) 04.
Attached MEEP materials exposure experiment to outside of Mir (retrieved on STS-86).
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered 1,140 kg of fuel and 1,700 kg of cargo to the Mir complex. Docked with Mir on 7 May 1996 08:54:19 GMT. Undocked on 1 Aug 1996 16:44:54 GMT. Destroyed in reentry over the Pacific on 1 Aug 1996 20:33:03 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 86.33 days.
Installed MCSA solar array.
Deployed MCSA solar array.
Multi-Spectral Scanner installed.
Retrieved and installed material samples
Assembled truss. Deployed SAR radar antenna.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. This was the first successful launch of a Soyuz-U after two failures. Docked with Mir at the forward docking port on 2 Aug 1996 22:03:40 GMT. Undocked on 18 Aug 1996 09:33:45 GMT in order to free up the docking port. By 29 August 1994 Mir was in a 375 x 390 km x 51.6 deg orbit; the Progress M-32 cargo ship, flying separately, was in a 375 x 392 km x 51.6 deg orbit. Redocked with Mir on 3 Sep 1996 09:35:00 GMT at the rear port of the Kvant module. Finally undocked from Mir on 20 Nov 1996 19:51:20 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Nov 1996 22:42:25 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.20 days. Total docked time 93.91 days.
Mir Expedition EO-22. Valeriy Korzun and Aleksandr Kaleri of the Russian Space Agency (RKA) Claudie Andre-Deshays of the French space agency CNES. This launch was the first of the Soyuz-U booster with a crew aboard following two launch failures of on unmanned flights. Soyuz docked with Mir's front port at 14:50:21 GMT on August 19; Mir was in a 375 x 390 km x 51.6 deg orbit.
On Feb 7 at 16:28:01 GMT the EO-22 crew and American astronaut Linenger undocked the Soyuz TM-24 ferry from the front docking port, flew it around to the far side of the complex and redocked at the rear Kvant port at 16:51:27 GMT. This cleared the forward port for the arrival of the EO-23 crew, who brought with them German astronaut Reinhold Ewald on Feb 12. Korzun, Kaleri and Ewald undocked from Mir in the Soyuz TM-24 spaceship at 03:24 GMT on March 2 and landed at 06:44 GMT near Arkaylk in Kazakstan.
On September 19 Atlantis docked with the Russian Mir space station. Aboard Atlantis in the payload bay were the Orbiter Docking System, the modified Long Tunnel, and the Spacehab Double Module, containing supplies for the Mir. Astronaut John Blaha relieved Shannon Lucid as NASA resident on the complex. Atlantis undocked from the Mir complex on September 23 at 23:33 GMT. Valeriy Korzun, Aleksandr Kaleri and John Blaha remain on Mir. On September 26 Atlantis closed its payload bay doors, and at 11:06 GMT fired its OMS engines for a three minute long deorbit burn. After entry interface at 11:42 GMT the spaceship flew across Canada and the US for a landing at the Kennedy Space Center's Runway 15 at 12:13 GMT.
Remained attached to OV-104
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 22 Nov 1996 01:01:30 GMT. Undocked on 6 Feb 1997 12:13:53 GMT. Thereafter in independent orbital flight in a 377 x 395 km x 51.65 deg orbit. Failed to redock with Mir on 4 Mar 1996. Destroyed in reentry on 12 Mar 1997 03:23:37 GMT. Total free-flight time 35.70 days. Total docked time 76.47 days.
Began installation of MCSA solar array cables.
Completed external cable installation for MCSA solar array. Installed antenna.
After a night launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis, the Shuttle docked with Mir at 03:55 GMT on January 14. STS-81 transferred 2,715 kg of equipment to and from the Mir, the largest transfer of items to that date. During the docked phase, 640 kg of water, 515 kg of U.S. science equipment, 1,000 kg of Russian logistics, and 120 kg of miscellaneous material were transferred to Mir. Returned to Earth aboard Atlantis were 570 kg of U.S. science material, 405 kg of Russian logistics and 98 kg of miscellaneous material. At 02:16 GMT January 19, Atlantis separated from Mir after picking up John Blaha, who had arrived aboard STS-79 on September 19, 1996, and dropping off Jerry Linenger, who was to stay aboard Mir for over four months. The Shuttle backed off along the -RBAR (i.e. toward the Earth) to a distance of 140 m before beginning a flyaround at 02:31 GMT. Most of the flyaround was at a distance from Mir of 170 m. The first 'orbit' around Mir was complete at 03:15, and the second was completed at 04:02 GMT. Then the Orbiter fired its jets to drift away from the orbit of Mir. NASA's first Shuttle mission of 1997 came to a close with a landing at the Kennedy Space Center at 14:22 GMT on January 22 (after the first opportunity was waved off due to cloud cover at the Cape).
Mir Expedition EO-23. Soyuz TM-25 docked with Mir at the forward port on February 12 at 15:51:13 GMT.
Following a mission that seemed to consist of an endless series of collisions, breakdowns, fires, and other emergencies, the EO-23 handed over the station and on August 14 entered Soyuz TM-25 landed in Kazakstan at 12:17 UTC, 170 km SE of Dzezkazgan. The Soyuz landing rockets failed to fire on touchdown, giving one of the roughest landings experienced by a returning Mir crew.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. It carried supplies for the Mir station and repair equipment for Mir's oxygen generators, replacement oxygen-generating 'candles' and a pair of new spacesuits. Docked with Mir at the rear Kvant module port on 8 Apr 1997 17:30:03 GMT. The Mir complex raised its orbit by 5 km on 15 Apr 1997 at 12:00 GMT, using Progress M-34's engine. Undocked on 24 Jun 1997 10:22:50 GMT. It was then used to perform a redocking test using newly developed remote-control procedures which were to replace the automatic system that Russia could no longer afford to buy from Ukraine. At 25 Jun 1997 09:18 GMT Mir commander Tsibliev was remotely commanding the approach of Progress to the Kvant module. This involved guiding the Progress via a television monitor. The Progress was difficult to see against the cloudy earth background at the time of the attempted docking. It went off course and collided with a solar array on the Spektr module and then the module itself. A large hole was made in a solar panel, one of the radiators was buckled, a hole was punched into Spektr's hull, and the module began to depressurize. This was not a slow leak - the crew heard a hissing sound and felt their ears pop. They disconnected the power cables leading from Mir to the main station and closed the hatch on the core module transfer section that led to Spektr. The Spektr module became fully depressurized, remaining docked to Mir with its docking hatch open. The loss of electrical connection between Spektr's solar panels and the main station cut the available power supply to the station, crippling its operations until later repairs reconnected the electrical lines. Tsibliev was also the pilot on a previous orbital collision, when he banged Soyuz TM-17 into Mir in Jan 1994. After the return of the crew to earth he was found to be to blame for the incident, although the fines assessed were later dismissed. The Progress M-34 cargo ship was backed to a safe distance from the station and was destroyed in reentry on 2 Jul 1997 06:31:50 GMT. Total free-flight time 9.90 days. Total docked time 76.70 days.
Test of new spacesuits. Retrieved and installed external equipment.
Atlantis blasted off on a night launch to Mir, docking with the station on May 17 at 02:33 GMT. Jerry Linenger, who had begun his stay on Mir in mid-January aboard STS-81, would return aboard STS-84. Michael Foale would be left at the station for his stint as the American crew member of Mir. The crew transfered to Mir 466 kg of water, 383 kg of U.S. science equipment, 1,251 kg of Russian equipment and supplies, and 178 kg of miscellaneous material. Returned to Earth aboard Atlantis were 406 kg of U.S. science material, 531 kg of Russian logistics material, 14 kg of ESA material and 171 kg of miscellaneous material. Atlantis undocked from Mir at 01:04 GMT on May 22. After passing up its first landing opportunity due to clouds over the landing site, the Shuttle fired its OMS engines on the deorbit burn at 12:33 GMT on May 24. Atlantis landed at 13:27 GMT at Kennedy Space Center's runway 33.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 7 Jul 1997 05:59:24 GMT. Undocked on 6 Aug 1997 11:46:45 GMT. Redocked with Mir on 18 Aug 1997 12:52:48 GMT. Final undocking on 7 Oct 1997 12:03:49 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 7 Oct 1997 17:23:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 80.21 days.
Mir Expedition EO-24. The Soyuz docked manually at 17:02 GMT August 7. Over the next six months the crew undertook seven internal and external spacewalks to repair the crippled space station. Solovyov and Vinogradov together with French astronaut Eyharts (launched aboard Soyuz TM-27) undocked from the forward port on Mir at 05:52 GMT on February 19, 1998, fired their deorbit engines at 08:16 GMT and landed in Kazakstan at 50 deg 11 N, 67 deg 31 E at 09:10 GMT.
Connected Spektr power cables. Surveyed interior of depressurised Spektr module. Retrieved equipment and belongings from module.
Inspected exterior of Spektr. Moved solar arrays.
Atlantis was launched on a mission to the Russian Mir space station. The TI rendevous terminal initiation burn was carried out at 17:32 GMT on September 27, and Atlantis docked with the SO (Docking Module) on the Mir complex at 19:58 GMT. The crew exchange was completed on September 28, with David Wolf replacing Michael Foale on the Mir crew. On October 1 cosmonaut Titov and astronaut Parazynski conducted a spacewalk from the Shuttle payload bay while Atlantis was docked to Mir. They retrieved four MEEP (Mir Environmental Effects Payload ) exposure packages from Mir's SO module and installed the Spektr solar array cap. The MEEP experiments had been attached to the Docking Module by astronauts Linda Godwin and Rich Clifford during Shuttle mission STS-76 in March 1996. In addition to retrieving the MEEP, Parazynski and Titov were to continue an evaluation of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), a small jet-backpack designed for use as a type of life jacket during station assembly.
Atlantis undocked from Mir at 17:28 GMT on October 3 and conducted a flyaround focused on the damaged Spektr Module to determine the location of the puncture in its hull. The Mir crew pumped air into the Spektr Module using a pressure regulator valve, and the Shuttle crew observed evidence that, as expected, the leak seemed to be located at the base of the damaged solar panel. Final separation of Atlantis from Mir took place around 20:28 GMT. After two landing attempts were waved off on October 5 due to heavy cloud cover, the crew fired the engines to deorbit at 20:47 GMT on October 6 and landed at Kennedy Space Center at 21:55.
Retrieved MEEP materials exposure experiment from outside of Mir.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 8 Oct 1997 17:07:09 GMT. Undocked on 17 Dec 1997 06:01:53 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Dec 1997 13:20:01 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.39 days. Total docked time 69.54 days.
Installed new hatch to reconnect Spektr solar array cable with Mir power bus.
Removed solar array from Kvant module.
Installed solar array.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir at the rear Kvant port on 22 Dec 1997 10:22:20 GMT. Undocked on 30 Jan 1998 12:00:00 GMT. Redocked with Mir on 23 Feb 1998 09:42:28 GMT. Final undocking 15 Mar 1998 19:16:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Mar 1998 23:04:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 59.47 days.
Recovered equipment; began repairs on leaky Kvant-2 airlock. Examination of airlock indicated cause was loose belt, resulting in 10 mm gap.
Inspected station exterior.
Penultimate Shuttle mission to Mir. Andy Thomas replaced David Wolf as the resident NASA astronaut. Endeavour docked with the SO module on Mir at 20:14 GMT on January 24, 1998.
Despite fits problems with his Sokol emergency spacesuit, Andy Thomas replaced David Wolf as a Mir crew member on January 25. Endeavour undocked from Mir on January 29 at 16:57 GMT and made one flyaround of the station before departing and landing at Kennedy Space Center's runway 15 at 22:35 GMT on January 31.
Soyuz TM-27 carried the Mir EO-25 crew and French astronaut Leopold Eyharts. NASA and the Russian Space Agency had hoped Soyuz TM-27 could dock with Mir while Endeavour was still there, resulting in an on-board crew of 13, a record which would have stood for years or decades. But the French vetoed this, saying the commotion and time wasted would ruin Eyharts Pegase experimental programme. Soyuz TM-27 docked at the Kvant module port at 17:54 GMT on January 31, 1998, less than five hours before Endeavour landed in Florida.
Solovyov handed over command of Mir to EO-25 commander Musabayev, and the Mir EO-24 crew and Eyharts undocked from the forward port of Mir at 05:52 GMT on February 19 aboard the Soyuz TM-26 for their return home. On February 20, the EO-25 crew and Andy Thomas of the NASA-7 mission boarded Soyuz TM-27 and undocked from the Kvant port at 08:48 GMT. They redocked with the forward port on Mir at 09:32 GMT. This freed up the Kvant port for a test redocking of the Progress M-37 cargo ship, parked in a following orbit with Mir during the crew transfer.
Soyuz TM-27 undocked from Mir at 02:05 GMT on August 25, with Musabayev, Budarin and Baturin aboard. They landed on August 25 at 05:23 UTC near Arkalyk in Kazakstan.
Inner and outer airlocks of Kvant-2 module were depressurised for EVA. However the crew could not open the outer hatch, repaired on 2 January 1998 by Solovyov and Vinogradov. The planned EVA was cancelled.
Progress M-38 was specially modified to carry the second VDU (Vynosnaya Dvigatel'naya Ustanovka, External Engine Unit) propulsion unit. The VDU was mounted externally on a special structure between the cargo module and the service module, replacing the OKD fuel section present on normal Progress vehicles. The crew spacewalks to extract the VDU from Progress and place it on the end of the Sofora boom extending from the Kvant module. The VDU was used to provide attitude control capability for the station. By 03:20 GMT on March 15 1998 Progress M-38 had successfully completed its first two orbital manoeuvres. It replaced Progress M-37 at the docking port on the Kvant module, with a successful docking on March 16 1998 at 22:45 GMT. Undocked May 15 at 1844 UTC, freeing up the docking port on the Kvant module for Progress M-39. Deorbited over Pacific May 15, 1998.
The Kvant-2 hatch had been fixed from within and was used for the EVA. Objective was to repair the damaged Spektr solar panel. Handrails were installed near the panel but the crew could not complete the work before the scheduled time ran out.
The crew succeeded in completing repair of the damaged Spektr solar panel. However the EVA was cut short when Mission Control in error commanded the Mir to drift. This was then misdiagnosed as a depletion of fuel of the VDU orientation engine, and the crew was ordered back into the station.
The cosmonauts began a series of three EVA's to install the new VDU station orientation engine (delivered by Progress M-38) into the Sofora boom. On this first spacewalk they disconnected the old engine (in use for six years) and pushed it into space.
Installation of the new VDU station orientation engine assembly was completed at the end of the Sofora boom.
Two truss structures on the Kvant module and the new Sofora VDU station orientation engine assembly was unlatched from Progress M-38.
Docked with Mir at the Kvant port at 23:51 GMT on May 16 1998, bringing supplies and scientific experiments to the station. Undocked 09:28 GMT on August 12 1998 in order to clear the port for Soyuz TM-28. Deorbited over Pacific Ocean on October 29, 1998.
The final shuttle-Mir mission, STS-91 recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from the Mir station and took Russian space chief and ex-cosmonaut Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour of the ageing station. This was the first test of the super lightweight Aluminium-Lithium alloy external tank, designed to increase shuttle payload to the Mir / International Space Station orbit by 4,000 kg. At 22:15 GMT Discovery entered an initial 74 x 324 km x 51.6 deg orbit, with the OMS-2 burn three quarters of an hour later circulising the chase orbit. Discovery docked with the SO module on Mir at 17:00 GMT on June 4. NASA equipment was retrieved from the station, and Discovery undocked at 16:01 GMT on June 8, and landed on Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 18:00 GMT on June 12.
Soyuz TM-28 docked at 10:56 GMT on August 15 with the rear (Kvant) port of the Mir space station, which had been vacated at 09:28 GMT on August 12 by Progress M-39. The EO-25 crew, Musabayev and Budarin, landed with Baturin on Aug 25, leaving the EO-26 crew of Padalka and Avdeyev on the station. As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, the return crew of Soyuz TM-28 was subject to constant replanning and revision. On February 8, 1999, at 11:23 GMT Padalka and Avdeyev undocked from Mir's -X port in Soyuz TM-28, and redocked at the +X Kvant port at 11:39 GMT, freeing up the front port for the Soyuz TM-29 docking. Finally on February 27, 1999 EO-26 commander Padalka and Slovak cosmonaut Bella undocked Soyuz TM-28 from the Kvant rear docking port at 22:52 GMT, landing in Kazakhstan on February 28 at 02:14 GMT. Avdeyev remained on Mir with the EO-27 crew delivered on Soyuz TM-29, heading for a manned space flight time record.
After donning spacesuits, the PKhO compartment of the Mir core module was depressurized and the crew entered the dead Spektr module at 20:00 GMT. They reconnected some cables for the solar panel steering mechanism and closed the hatch a half hour later. The PKhO was then repressurized.
Docked with the rear (+X, Kvant) docking port of the Mir station on October 27. Delivered fuel, dry cargo, and the Znamya-2.5 solar illumination experiment. This was a follow-on to the earlier Znamya-2 experiment on Progress M-15 in 1992. The 25 m diameter Znamya reflector, which would unfold from the nose of the Progress, was to reflect sunlight over a 6 km area onto selected cities. Znamya-2.5 was developed by the Space Regatta Consortium, led by RKK Energia. Energia had long studied such space mirrors as a means of providing lighting to Siberian towns. The project was opposed by environmentalists and astronomers, who feared light pollution. Progress M-40 undocked on February 4, 1999 at 09:59 GMT, but the attempted deployment of the Znamya-2.5 reflector was thwarted when it snagged on a rendezvous system antenna. After two more failed attempts to deploy the antenna the experiment was abandoned. Progress M-40 fired its engines at 10:16 GMT on February 5, braked out of orbit, and burned up over the Pacific Ocean.
Padalka and Avdeyev made the EVA from the Kvant-2 airlock on the Mir. The walk began at 19:24 GMT. The cosmonauts installed a meteoroid detector in for the upcoming Leonid shower, and hand-launched the Spoutnik-41 amateur-radio mini-satellite. The space walk concluded at 01:18 GMT on November 11.
Soyuz TM-29 docked with Mir on February 22 at 05:36 GMT. Since two crew seats had been sold (to Slovakia and France), Afansyev was the only Russian cosmonaut aboard. This meant that Russian engineer Avdeyev already aboard Mir would have to accept a double-length assignment. After the February 27 departure of EO-26 crew commander Padalka and Slovak cosmonaut Bella aboard Soyuz TM-28, the new EO-27 Mir crew consisted of Afanasyev as Commander, Avdeyev as Engineer and French cosmonaut Haignere. Follwoing an extended mission and three space walks, the last operational crew aboard Mir prepared to return. The station was powered down and prepared for free drift mode. The hatch between Mir and Soyuz was closed for the last time at 18:12 GMT on August 27, 1999. Soyuz TM-29 undocked from Mir at 21:17 GMT with Afanasyev, Avdeyev and Haignere aboard. The Mir EO-27 crew landed in Kazakhstan at 00:35 GMT on August 28. Afanasyev had set a new cumulative time in space record, but for the first time since September 1989 there were no humans in space. The only crew that might return to Mir would be one to deorbit it, and beyond that budgets indicated that no more than one Soyuz crew per year could be sent to the International Space Station.
Resupply craft docked uneventfully with the Mir complex two days later. It also delivered the Sputnik-99 amateur radio satellite, launched into orbit by hand by the cosmonauts during an EVA on April 16. Still hopeful of finding a backer to pay to keep Mir in space, Progress M-41 began a series of engine burns in late April to raise the orbit of the station. It finally undocked from Mir at 11:20 GMT on July 17 and was deorbited over the Pacific later the same day.
Haignere launched by hand the Sputnik-99 amateur radio satellite, delivered to Mir by Progress M-41.
Delivered supplies to the crew of the Mir complex. Docked with the Kvant port at 17:53 GMT on July 18. Remained docked to the station after the departure of the last operational crew in September 1999. Undocked on February 2. 2000, to clear the port for Progress M1, at 0311:52 GMT. Deorbited over the Pacific later the same day at 0610:40 UTC with an 8 minute burn.
Mir spacewalk started at 11:06 GMT. Afanasyev and Avdeyev installed a new experimental 6-meter antenna but failed to deploy it.
The spacewalk started at 09:37 GMT. Afanasyev and Avdeyev erected an experimental 6-meter antenna. At the end of the experiment the antenna was jettisoned.
Progress M1 is a modification of the Progress M for the International Space Station. The first such spacecraft was diverted to raise the orbit of Mir. It docked with the unoccupied Mir space station on February 3 at 0802:20 GMT. Burns of its motor to raise Mir's orbit began on February 5 and continued through February 9. Progress M1-1 undocked at 16:33 GMT on April 26 to clear the docking port for Progress M1-2. It was deorbited over the Pacific at 19:27 GMT the same day.
Soyuz TM-30 docked with Mir's forward (-X) port on April 6 at 0631 GMT. Zalyotin and Kaleri reactivated Mir and using Progress M1-1 and M1-2 resupplied the station and raised the orbit to 360 x 378 km x 51.6 deg. The orbital plane of Mir was then around 120 degrees away from that of ISS (making transport between the stations impossible, as desired by NASA). Soyuz TM-30 undocked from Mir on June 15 21:24 GMT. Retrofire came at 23:52 GMT, followed by a safe landing at June 16, 00:44 GMT near Arkalyk in Kazakkstan.
Progress M1-2 docked with the rear Kvant port of Mir at 2128 GMT on April 27. Mir's orbit was raised on April 29 in the first of a series of three burns by Progress M1-2. It later undocked and was deorbited over the Pacific on 15 October.
The cosmonauts entered open space via the air-lock of Kvant-2 at 10:44 GMT. The Germatizator experiment, the use of a special glue to seal off cracks on the outside surface of the complex, was executed according to plan. An inspection of a malfunctioning solar panel on Kvant-1showed that the steering cable to the rotor was burnt through due to a short-circuit and was beyond repair. The cosmonauts dismantled an experimental lightweight solar battery from the outer surface of the SO docking compartment. The last activity was the panorama-inspection, making images of the outside of the complex to enable specialist to analyse the effects of ageing of the material. The hatch was closed on what might have been the last spacewalk on Mir at 15:36 GMT.
Progress docked with Mir, primarily to raise its orbit and preserve the option of a MirCorp-financed flight in 2001.