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Family: Winged. Country: USSR. Status: Study 1988.

Vertical takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered vehicle. 550 tonne gross liftoff mass and 1000 tonne versions studied. Analogous to NASA's Shuttle-2 and RKK Energia's VKS. For the 550 tonne version, dry mass of the launch vehicle would have to be 67,700 kg, with payload 7,500 kg / 1.4 percent of the growth. Payload could therefore be zero depending on the uncertainties in weight growth of the design during development. As in other vertically-launched SSTO designs, this was considered too great a risk, and the air-launched MAKS was selected instead. Velocity loss during ascent estimated at 1619 m/s compared to 1168 m/s for MAKS (payload 3.1% of gross).


LEO Payload: 7,500 kg. to: 200 km Orbit. at: 51.0 degrees. Total Mass: 550,000 kg.


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Last update 12 March 2001.
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