This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at VKS-O

Family: Winged. Country: USSR. Status: Study 1988.

Vertical takeoff, ballistic re-entry, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered, reusable launch vehicle. 550 tonne and 770 tonne gross lift-off mass versions considered. For the 550 tonne version, dry mass of the launch vehicle would have to be 68,700 kg / 18 percent of the gross, with payload 8,500 kg / 1.5 percent of the growth. Payload would range from 2000 to 10,000 kg depending on the uncertainties in weight growth of the design during development. As in other vertically-launched SSTO designs, this was considered too great a risk, and the air-launched MAKS was selected instead. Velocity loss during ascent estimated at 1665 m/s compared to 1168 m/s for MAKS (payload 3.1% of gross).


LEO Payload: 8,500 kg. to: 200 km Orbit. at: 51.0 degrees. Total Mass: 550,000 kg.


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Last update 12 March 2001.
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