This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at VKS-G

Family: Winged. Country: USSR. Status: Study 1988.

Air launched from Kholod Mach 5 mother ship. This was a Mikoyan supersonic cargo aircraft, designed from Spiral 50-50 design. Combined-cycle turbo-ramjet engine. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, Mach 5 at 25 to 30 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 1130 m/s. It was concluded that the extensive development would be required for the combination-cycle engines, resulting in an extended development schedule and high technical risk. The more conservative subsonic-launched MAKS was chosen instead.


LEO Payload: 21,000 kg. to: 200 km Orbit. at: 51.0 degrees.


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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .