|UR-200 launch - |
Credit: © Mark Wade. 8,965 bytes. 103 x 431 pixels.
On 16 March and 1 August 1961 the Central Committee and Politburo approved development of the UR-200 (8K81) universal rocket. The UR-200 was designed not only to send a thermonuclear warhead over a range of 12,000 km, but also to orbit the IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT; the US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) nuclear-powered naval intelligence satellite; and the Raketoplan combat re-entry vehicle, which would use aerodynamic horizontal and vertical manoeuvring to penetrate enemy space defences and be practically invulnerable. The UR-200 draft project was completed in July 1962. It technical characteristics would be similar to those of Korolevís R-9 and Yangelís R-16. Trial flights of the ICBM version ran from 4 November 1963 to 20 October 1964.
On October 13, 1964, Khrushchev was ousted from power. The new leadership, under Brezhnev, was adverse to all projects Khrushchev had supported. These included those of Chelomei and his OKB-52. An expert commission under M V Keldysh was directed to examine all of Chelomeiís projects and make recommendations as to which should be cancelled. Keldysh found that Yangelís R-36 universal rocket was superior to Chelomeiís UR-200. The UR-200 and Raketoplan were accordingly cancelled, while the IS and US satellites were redesigned for launch by the R-36.
UR-200 artefacts may be found at the following museums: Tsniimash has a 1:10 structural simulation model; Orevo has a complete sectioned missile; Baikonur has launch photographs. All launch vehicle data are accurate (except empty mass prorated between first and second stages).
LEO Payload: 2,000 kg. to: 185 km Orbit. at: 52.0 degrees. Liftoff Thrust: 203,810 kgf. Total Mass: 135,710 kg. Core Diameter: 3.0 m. Total Length: 36.0 m.
Decree 715-295 'On approval of preliminary work on the Raketoplan, UR-200 ICBM, and IS anti-satellite system' was issued.
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 1057-434 'On transfer of OKB-23 as Branch No. I of OKB-52 and on course of work on IS anti-satellite system' was issued. Chelomei acquired the OKB-23 of Vladimir Mikhailovich Myasishchev, (which had formerly designed heavy bombers), as well as the M K Khrunichev heavy aviation factory. Both of these organisations had a very high level of technical and manufacturing expertise, and assisted Chelomei in quickly moving ahead on his new space projects.
|UR-200 ICBM - UR-200 Universal Rocket, planned for both ICBM and space launch duties.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 3,878 bytes. 42 x 372 pixels.
Decree 420∑1741 'On approval of work on the US satellite and UR-200 launch vehicle / ICBM' was issued.
|RD-0205 8D46 - RD-0205 8D46 on stage 8S816 (UR-200)|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 45,159 bytes. 576 x 400 pixels.
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On course of work on the UR-200 missile and launcher' was issued.
|UR-200 - UR-200 based on launch photo|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 1,146 bytes. 44 x 336 pixels.
Decree 'On course of work on the US reconnaissance satellite system launched on the UR-2OO' was issued.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 49,104 bytes. 576 x 395 pixels.
|UR-200 ICBM - Drawing of UR-200 ICBM. The UR-200 was tested but not put into service.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 3,714 bytes. 39 x 331 pixels.
Brezhnev faction assumes control of Politubro. Brezhnev was adverse to all projects Khrushchev had supported. These included those of Chelomei and his OKB-52.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 9,645 bytes. 199 x 287 pixels.
|UR-200 and UR-500 - Dynamic test models of UR-200 ICBM and early Proton concept 'collection of UR-200's'|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 27,338 bytes. 291 x 434 pixels.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 47,492 bytes. 579 x 398 pixels.