astronautix.com R-36-0

R-36 ICBM
R-36 ICBM - Structural test model of R-36 ICBM / Space launcher

Credit: © Mark Wade. 7,580 bytes. 72 x 421 pixels.



Family: Tsyklon. Country: Ukraine. Status: Hardware. Other Designations: FOBS; Fractional Orbital Bombing System. Library of Congress Designation: F-1r. Department of Defence Designation: SS-9 Mod.3. ASCC Reporting Name: Scarp. Article Number: 8K69. Manufacturer's Designation: R-36-O.

The Global Rocket 1 (GR-1) requirement of 1961 called for a system to place a large nuclear warhead equipped with a deorbit rocket stage into a low earth orbit of 150 km altitude. The warhead could approach the United States from any direction, below missile tracking radar, so little warning was available. Not only could such a missile hit any point on earth, but the enemy would also be uncertain when it would be deorbited onto target. The main disadvantage was lower accuracy of the warhead in comparison to an ICBM.

Chelomei proposed his UR-200 for the requirement, while Yangel offered the R-36, and Korolev the 8K713. Development problems with the 8K713’s NK-9 engine resulted in continual delays, resulting in cancellation of Korolev’s competitor in 1964. Following Khrushchev’s ouster from power in October 1964, Chelomei’s UR-200 project was reviewed and cancelled. This left Yangel’s R-36 for the mission.

Flight trials of the system were conducted 1965 to 1972. Since orbiting of nuclear weapons was a violation of international treaty, the Soviet Union conducted all tests on a 'fractional orbit' basis - i.e. the test warheads were deorbited after less than one orbit of the earth. The system was in service at 18 siloes at Baikonur from 1969 to 1983.


Launches: 24. Failures: 0. Success Rate: 100.00% pct. First Launch Date: 16 December 1965. Last Launch Date: 09 August 1971. LEO Payload: 3,000 kg. to: 150 km Orbit. at: 52.0 degrees. Liftoff Thrust: 241,300 kgf. Total Mass: 182,000 kg. Core Diameter: 3.0 m. Total Length: 33.0 m. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 8.00 million. in 1985 unit dollars.
- 1965 Dec 16 - Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC67.
- 1966 Feb 5 - Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC67.
- 1966 Mar 16 - Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC67.
- 1966 May 19 - Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC69.
- 1966 Nov 2 - - 00:43 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC162.
- 1966 Sep 17 - - 22:33 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC162.
- 1967 Aug 8 - - 16:04 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1967 Jan 25 - - 13:55 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1967 Jul 17 - - 16:48 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1967 Jul 31 - - 16:48 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1967 Mar 22 - Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC162. FAILURE: Failure.
- 1967 May 17 - - 16:04 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1967 Oct 18 - - 13:26 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1967 Oct 28 - - 13:12 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1967 Sep 19 - - 14:52 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1967 Sep 22 - - 14:09 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1968 Apr 25 - - 00:43 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1968 May 21 - Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC69.
- 1968 May 28 - Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC69.
- 1968 Oct 2 - - 13:40 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1969 Sep 15 - - 16:04 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1970 Jul 29 - - 22:04 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1970 Sep 25 - - 14:09 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .
- 1971 Aug 9 - - 23:44 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur .

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Last update 22 December 2000.
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