|Briz M - |
Credit: Khrunichev. 11,437 bytes. 291 x 196 pixels.
Improved Proton. Minor improvements in lower stages to fully utilize propellants, reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas. Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage.
LEO Payload: 21,000 kg. to: 185 km Orbit. at: 51.6 degrees. Payload: 2,920 kg. to a: geosynchronous orbital trajectory. Liftoff Thrust: 965,580 kgf. Total Mass: 712,800 kg. Core Diameter: 7.4 m. Total Length: 53.0 m.
|Proton K LV|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 1,749 bytes. 63 x 414 pixels.
Carried a Russian Defence Ministry communications satellite. First attempted flight of the Khrunichev Briz-M upper stage in place of the usual Block DM. After the second stage explosion the remainder of the vehicle survived for 45 seconds before breaking up. Debris landed near Karaganda. As a result of this accident the Kazakh government suspended launches from Baikonur pending Russian agreement to pay back part of rent owed.
|Universal Rockets - Chelomei's Universal Rocket Family. From left to right: UR-200. Original UR-500 configuration, composed of clustered UR-200's. Conventional UR-500 monoblock configuration. Selected UR-500 polyblock configuration. UR-500 two-stage configuration as flown. UR-500K configuration with Block D upper stage.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 36,031 bytes. 630 x 351 pixels.
First successful Proton/Briz-M launch. The Proton placed the Briz-M/Gorizont payload stack into a suborbital trajectory. The stage then performed four maneuvers to put the satellite into geosynchronous orbit: