|astronautix.com||Proton 8K82K / 11S861-01|
|Proton 8K82K / 11S86 - Proton 8K82K / 11S86 Block DM launch vehicle - cutaway drawing showing arrangement of N2O4 oxidiser tanks (green) and UDMH fuel tanks (orange) in Proton, and Liquid oxygen (blue) and kerosene (pink) tanks in the Block DM stage. Block DM guidance package is housed in the light brown compartment above the LOX tank.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 6,988 bytes. 60 x 430 pixels.
This four stage version uses the Block DM / 11S86 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on.
Launches: 9. Failures: 0. Success Rate: 100.00% pct. First Launch Date: 20 January 1994. Last Launch Date: 24 June 2000. Payload: 1,880 kg. to a: geosynchronous orbital trajectory. Liftoff Thrust: 902,100 kgf. Total Mass: 712,460 kg. Core Diameter: 4.2 m. Total Length: 59.0 m. Launch Price $: 70.00 million. in 1994 price dollars.
Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. Also tested SPT-100 plasma engine.
First launch of new Ekspress communications satellite. Replaces Gorizont series. Stationed at 14.00W
Credit: © Mark Wade. 17,203 bytes. 671 x 154 pixels.
Geosynchronous. Kupon is the first communications satellite for the Russian banking system, and the first commercial communications satellite sold by the Lavochkin, who have in the past been more commonly associated with planetary probes and early warning satellites. Kupon, owned by the Russian Federation Central Bank (and possibly Global Information Systems of Moscow), relays financial data for the Bankir network.
Credit: Lockheed-Martin. 14,171 bytes. 134 x 503 pixels.
The first two Yamal communications satellites were placed into a 197 km x 36,311 km x 49.3 degree transfer orbit The DM-2M fourth stage made two successful burns, placing the satellites in circular 36,000 km geosynchronous orbits. Yamal 101 reportedly ran into problems after it was deployed. RKK Energia built the new Yamal satellites for AO Gazcom of Moscow, a joint venture of RKKE and RAO Gazprom, the Russian natural gas monopoly. The two satellites will support internal communications for RAO Gazprom.
|Proton with Granat - Proton with Granat payload|
Credit: Lockheed Martin. 18,616 bytes. 356 x 446 pixels.
Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 90 deg E.
GO Kosmicheskaya Svyaz geosynchronous communications satellite, to be assigned to the Ekspress 6A slot at 80E. Replaced the first Ekspress A, lost in a launch failure in 1999. Russian satellite bus with a ommunications payload from Alcatel France. Stationed at 80 deg E.
Credit: Lockheed Martin. 6,963 bytes. 181 x 273 pixels.
Sesat (Siberia-Europe Satellite) used an MSS-2500-GSO (Gals/Ekspress) satellite bus built by NPO PM of Krasnoyarsk, with an Alcatel Espace France payload of 18 Ku-band transponders. The satellite had 8 Fakel SPD-100 plasma thrusters for stationkeeping. Eutelsat operated their Hot Bird fleet of European television broadcast satellites since the 1980's, but the venture into broadcasting to Siberia represented a new step for them. Stationed at 36 deg E.
|Universal Rockets - Chelomei's Universal Rocket Family. From left to right: UR-200. Original UR-500 configuration, composed of clustered UR-200's. Conventional UR-500 monoblock configuration. Selected UR-500 polyblock configuration. UR-500 two-stage configuration as flown. UR-500K configuration with Block D upper stage.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 36,031 bytes. 630 x 351 pixels.
|R-7 vs Proton - R-7 / Proton LVs Cutaway|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 10,191 bytes. 287 x 720 pixels.