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NORMA Spaceplane
NORMA Spaceplane -

Credit: Mark Lindroos. 9,265 bytes. 161 x 387 pixels.

Family: Winged. Country: Russia. Status: Study 1997.

Semi-reusable vertically launched two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The flight profile featured a reusable flyback booster launched from a modular launch platform, an expendable second stage with a reusable orbiter that would have landed vertically. Development cost estimated at $13 billion.


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Last update 12 March 2001.
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