This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at MAKS-D

Family: Winged. Country: USSR. Status: Study 1981.

NPO Molniya, Antonov, and TsAGI proposed a spaceplane demonstrator project to the European Space Agency in 1993-1994 under the RADEM project. This would be a scaled-back version of the cancelled MAKS spaceplane using existing rocket engines. An unmanned prototype of the MAKS would be fitted out with RD-120 Lox/Kerosene engines. Launched from atop the An-225, the MAKS-D would reach an altitude of 80 to 90 km and a speed of Mach 14 to 15.

The ES experimental spacecraft would have a launch mass of 56 tonnes, including 45 tonnes of propellant. It would fly at hypersonic speed out to a range of 1500 km, then return to an automatic landing at its launching base. Three variants were proposed:


LEO Payload: 2,000 kg. to: 200 km Orbit. at: 51.0 degrees. Total Mass: 185,000 kg.

MAKS-D Chronology

- 1993 -


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Last update 12 March 2001.
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