This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at Herakles

Family: Winged. Country: Russia. Status: Study 1993.

Launch vehicle design by NPO Molniya / TsAGI that would utilize air launch from a giant cargo aircraft capable of lifting 900 tonne payloads. The single stage to orbit spaceplane would be released at subsonic velocity.


Total Mass: 900,000 kg. Core Diameter: 19.0 m. Total Length: 63.0 m.

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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .