|Launch Vehicle: Hermes. The Army Hermes A-1 test rocket was fired from WSPG and assisted American engineers to understand and improve on the technology of the V-2. Lessons learned on the Hermes were applied to the Navaho, Atlas, and Redstone missile projects.|
|Launch Vehicle: Jupiter A. |
Test rocket derived from the Redstone ballistic missile to test guidance and re-entry vehicle technology for the Jupiter IRBM. The Jupiter A consisted of an uprated Redstone as the first stage, with a cluster of small solid rocket motors as upper stages, which would drive the subscale Jupiter warhead to the same speed and range as the IRBM.
|Launch Vehicle: Jupiter C. |
Satellite launcher derived from Redstone IRBM. Redstone missiles were launched with upper stages to test Jupiter reentry vehicle configurations. The first US rocket with orbital launch capability. Von Braun's team was ordered to ballast the upper stage with sand to prevent any 'inadvertent' artificial satellites from stealing thunder from the official Vanguard program. Korolev's R-7 orbited the first earth satellite instead. The Jupiter C was retroactively named the 'Juno I' by Von Braun's team.
|Launch Vehicle: Redstone. Redstone was the first large liquid rocket developed in the US using German V-2 technology. Originally designated Hermes C1. Redstones later launched the first US satellite and the first American astronaut into space.|
|Launch Vehicle: Jupiter. |
The Jupiter IRBM was developed for the US Army. By the time development was complete, the mission and the missile was assigned to the US Air Force, which had its own nearly identical missile, the Thor. Jupiters were stationed in Turkey and Italy in the early 1960's, but withdrawn in secret exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet R-5 missiles from Cuba. The Jupiter was used as the first stage of the relatively unsuccessful Juno II launch vehicle, and proposed for the Juno III and Juno IV. Jupiter tooling and engines were used to build the much larger Juno V / Saturn I launch vehicle.
|Launch Vehicle: Juno II. Satellite launcher derived from Jupiter IRBM.|
|Launch Vehicle: Sparta.|