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RD-270 - RD-270 Rocket Engine - largest single-chamber engine ever developed in the Soviet Union.

Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler. 36,023 bytes. 356 x 528 pixels.

Manufacturer Name: RD-270. Government Designation: 8D420. Designer: Glushko. Developed in: 1962-71. Application: UR-700, R-56 stage 1. Used on stages: UR700-1, UR700-2. Used on launch vehicles: UR-700. Propellants: N2O4/UDMH Thrust(vac): 685,000 kgf. Thrust(vac): 6,713.00 kN. Isp: 322 sec. Isp (sea level): 301 sec. Mass Engine: 4,470 kg. Diameter: 3.3 m. Length: 4.8 m. Chambers: 1. Chamber Pressure: 261.00 bar. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.67. Country: Russia. Status: Hardware. First Flight: 1966. References: 287 .

Authorized for development in the 1962-1971 period, the RD-270 was Glushko's answer to the US F-1 rocket engine and was the largest rocket engine ever built in the Soviet Union. It was to be used on Chelomei's UR-700 lunar vehicle or Yangel's R-56 monster rocket. The UR-700 would have used 6 RD-270 in the first stage. No design bureau would attempt anything like it today. It was the maximum possible power from the design: gas and gas mixture in the combustion chamber; two gas generators in the combustion chamber; one oxidiser rich and one fuel rich; closed cycle; staged burning; very high pressure in the combustion chamber (266 bar compared to about 80 bar in many today, except the SSME). Thrust was 640,000 kgf. Hot fire tests had started (with 40 done) and some units had been proved. Engine head testing had started. The peak of problems had almost been surmounted when all the N-1 lunar program was closed down and efforts had to stop. It never was used on a flight vehicle and funding ran out before combustion instability problems could be solved. Wet Mass: 5603 kg wet. Engine Cycle: closed staged. Feed Method: turbopump.

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Last update 12 March 2001.
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